Cocaine Addiction Information
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rohypnol & ghb information

Rohypnol

 

 

Rohypnol

 

Rohypnol produces sedative-hypnotic effects including musclerelaxation and amnesia; it can also produce physical and psychologicaldependence. In Miami, one of the first sites of Rohypnol abuse, poison controlcenters report an increase in withdrawal seizures among people addicted toRohypnol.

 

 

Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States and itsimportation is banned. Illicit use of Rohypnol began in Europe in the 1970s andstarted appearing in the United States in the early 1990s, where it becameknown as rophies, roofies, roach, rope, and the date rapedrug.

 

 

Another very similar drug is now being sold as roofies in Miami,Minnesota, and Texas. This is clonazepam, marketed in the U.S. as Klonopin andin Mexico as Rivotril. It is sometimes abused to enhance the effects of heroinand other opiates. Based on emergency room admission information, Boston, SanFrancisco, Phoenix, and Seattle appear to have the highest use rates ofclonazepam.

 

GHBSince about 1990, GHB(gamma- hydroxybutyrate) has been abused in the U.S. for euphoric, sedative,and anabolic (body building) effects. As with Rohypnol and clonazepam, GHB hasbeen associated with sexual assault in cities throughout thecountry. GHB

 

Reports from Detroit indicate liquid GHB is being used in nightclubsfor effects similar to those of Rohypnol. It is also common in the club scenein Phoenix, Honolulu, and Texas, where it is known as liquid ecstacy,somatomax, scoop, or grievous bodily harm. In Miami, poison controlcenter calls have reflected problems associated with increased GHB use,including loss of consciousness. In New York City, there have been reports ofGHB use among those in the fashion industry. In Atlanta, it is commonly used asa synthetic steroid at fitness centers and gyms.

 

 

Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and, when combinedwith methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure.Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea anddifficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, includinginsomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. Because of concern about Rohypnol,GHB, and other similarly abused sedative-hypnotics, Congress passed theDrug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996 in October 1996. Thislegislation increased Federal penalties for use of anycontrolled substance to aid in sexual assault.

 

 

Information and educational materials on Rohypnol and GHB directedtoward college students are available from the Rape Treatment Center at SantaMonica-UCLA Medical Center at 1-800-END-RAPE (1-800-363-7273). These materialsare also being distributed by the U.S. Department of Justice to law enforcementagencies throughout the country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

44 8
other_heroin heroin & heroin addiction information by Narconon Arrowhead& cocaine addiction.com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

heroin information

Heroin

Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and its use is a serious problem in America. Current estimates suggest that nearly 600,000 people need treatment for heroin addiction. Recent studies suggest a shift from injecting heroin to snorting or smoking because of increased purity and the misconception that these forms of use will not lead to addiction.

Heroin

 

HealthHazards

 

 

 

Heroin abuse isassociated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose,spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and infectious diseases, includingHIV/AIDS and hepatitis.

 

 

The short-termeffects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a fewhours. After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge ofeuphoria (rush) accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, andheavy extremities. Following this initial euphoria, the user goes on the nod,an alternately wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded dueto the depression of the central nervous system.

 

 

Long-term effectsof heroin appear after repeated use for some period of time. Chronic users maydevelop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses,cellulitis, and liver disease. Pulmonary complications, including various typesof pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as wellas from heroin’s depressing effects on respiration.

 

 

In addition to theeffects of the drug itself, street heroin may have additives that do notreadily dissolve and result in clogging the blood vessels that lead to thelungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. This can cause infection or even death ofsmall patches of cells in vital organs.

 

 

Reports fromSAMHSA’s 1995 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), which collects data ondrug-related hospital emergency room episodes and drug-related deaths from 21metropolitan areas, rank heroin second as the most frequently mentioned drug inoverall drug-related deaths. From 1990 through 1995, the number ofheroin-related episodes doubled. Between 1994 and 1995, there was a 19 percentincrease in heroin-related emergency department episodes.

Monitoring the FutureStudy

 

 

 

 8th-Graders  12th-Graders
 2.1%  2.1%
 1.3  1.2
 0.6  0.5

 

Community Epidemiology Work Group(CEWG)

 

 

In December 1996,CEWG reported that the availability of low-priced, high-quality heroincontinues to increase, especially in the East and some areas of the Midwest.This increase has also been reported in some cities that previously had escapedthe influx of high-quality heroin.

 

 

Quantitativeindicators and field reports continue to suggest an increasing incidence of newusers (snorters) in the younger age groups, often among women. One concern isthat young heroin snorters may shift to needle injecting, because of increasedtolerance, nasal soreness, or declining or unreliable purity. Injection usewould place them at increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.

 

 

In some areas, suchas Boston and San Francisco, the recent initiates increasingly include membersof the middle class. In Newark, heroin users are usually found in suburbanpopulations.

 

 

NationalHousehold Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA)

 

 

The 1996 NHSDAshows a significant increase from 1993 in the estimated number of current (oncein the past month) heroin users. The estimates have risen from 68,000 in 1993to 216,000 in 1996.

 

 

Among individualswho had ever used heroin in their lives, the proportion who had ever smoked,sniffed, or snorted heroin increased from 55 percent in 1994 to 82 percent in1996. During the same period, the proportion of users who injected heroinremained about the same, at about 50 percent.

44 8
other_lsd lsd information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaineaddiction.com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

lsd information

LSD
LSD LSD, commonly referred toas acid, is sold on the street in tablets, capsules, and, occasionally,liquid form. It is odorless, colorless, and has a slightly bitter taste and isusually taken by mouth. Often LSD is added to absorbent paper, such as blotterpaper, and divided into small decorated squares, with each square representingone dose.

 

The Drug Enforcement Administration reports that the strength of LSDsamples obtained currently from illicit sources ranges from 20 to 80 microgramsof LSD per dose. This is considerably less than the levels reported during the1960s and early 1970s, when the dosage ranged from 100 to 200 micrograms, orhigher, per unit.

 

 

HealthHazards

 

 

The effects of LSD are unpredictable. They depend on the amount taken;the user’s personality, mood, and expectations; and the surroundings in whichthe drug is used. Usually, the user feels the first effects of the drug 30 to90 minutes after taking it. The physical effects include dilated pupils, higherbody temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss ofappetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors.

 

 

Sensations and feelings change much more dramatically than thephysical signs. The user may feel several different emotions at once or swingrapidly from one emotion to another. If taken in a large enough dose, the drugproduces delusions and visual hallucinations. The user’s sense of time and selfchanges. Sensations may seem to cross over, giving the user the feeling ofhearing colors and seeing sounds. These changes can be frightening and cancause panic.

 

 

Users refer to their experience with LSD as a trip and to acuteadverse reactions as a bad trip. These experiences are long – typically theybegin to clear after about 12 hours.

 

 

Some LSD users experience severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings,fear of losing control, fear of insanity and death, and despair while usingLSD. Some fatal accidents have occurred during states of LSDintoxication.

 

 

Many LSD users experience flashbacks, recurrence of certain aspects ofa person’s experience, without the user having taken the drug again. Aflashback occurs suddenly, often without warning, and may occur within a fewdays or more than a year after LSD use. Flashbacks usually occur in people whouse hallucinogens chronically or have an underlying personality problem;however, otherwise healthy people who use LSD occasionally may also haveflashbacks. Bad trips and flashbacks are only part of the risks of LSD use. LSDusers may manifest relatively long-lasting psychoses, such as schizophrenia orsevere depression. It is difficult to determine the extent and mechanism of theLSD involvement in these illnesses.

 

 

Most users of LSD voluntarily decrease or stop its use over time. LSDis not considered an addictive drug since it does not produce compulsivedrug-seeking behavior as do cocaine, amphetamine, heroin, alcohol, andnicotine. However, like many of the addictive drugs, LSD produces tolerance, sosome users who take the drug repeatedly must take progressively higher doses toachieve the state of intoxication that they had previously achieved. This is anextremely dangerous practice, given the unpredictability of the drug. NIDA isfunding studies that focus on the neurochemical and behavioral properties ofLSD. This research will provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms ofaction of the drug.

 

 

Extent of Use

 

 

Monitoring the Future Study (MTF)

 

 

Since 1975, MTF researchers have annually surveyed almost 17,000 highschool seniors nationwide to determine trends in drug use and to measureattitudes and beliefs about drug abuse. Over the past 2 years, the percentageof seniors who have used LSD has remained relatively stable. Between 1975 and1997, the lowest lifetime use of LSD was reported by the class of 1986, when7.2 percent of seniors reported using LSD at least once in their lives. In1997, 13.6 percent of seniors had experimented with LSD at least once in theirlifetimes. The percentage of seniors reporting use of LSD in the past yearnearly doubled from a low of 4.4 percent in 1985 to 8.4 percent in1997.

 

 

In 1997, 34.7 percent of seniors perceived great risk in using LSDonce or twice, and 76.6 percent said they saw great risk in using LSDregularly. More than 80 percent of seniors disapproved of people trying LSDonce or twice, and almost 93 percent disapproved of people taking LSDregularly.

 

 

Almost 51 percent of seniors said it would have been fairly easy orvery easy for them to get LSD if they had wanted it.

 

Monitoring the FutureStudy

 

 

10th Graders
 Ever Used        9.5%
 Used in Past Year        6.7
 Used in Past Month        2.8

National Household Surveyon Drug Abuse (NHSDA)

 

NHSDA reports the nature and extent of drug use amongtheAmerican household popula tion aged 12 and older. In the 1996 NHSDA estimates,the percentage of the population aged 12 and older who had ever used LSD (thelifetime prevalence rate) had increased to 7.7 percent from 6.0 percent in1988. Among youths 12 to 17 years old, the 1996 LSD lifetime prevalence ratewas 4.3 percent, and for those aged 18 to 25, the rate was 13.9 percent. Therate for past-year use of LSD among the population ages 12 and older was 1percent in 1996. Past-year prevalence was highest among the age groups 12 to 17(2.8 percent) and 18 to 25 (4.6 percent). The rate of current LSD use in 1996for those aged 18 to 25 was 0.9 percent, and it was 0.8 percent for 12- to17-year-old youths.

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other_marijuana marijuana information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction.com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

marijuana information

Cannabis sativa. There are over 200 slang terms for marijuana includingpot, herb, weed, boom, Mary Jane, gangster, and chronic. It isusually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or in a pipe or bong.In recent years, it has appeared in blunts. These are cigars that have beenemptied of tobacco and re-filled with marijuana, often in combination withanother drug, such as crack. Some users also mix marijuana into foods or use itto brew tea.

 

Marijuana
Marijuana

Once securely in place, THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the high that users experience when they smoke marijuana. The short term effects of marijuana use include problems with memory and learning; distorted perception; difficulty in thinking and problem-solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks.

 

Scientists have found that whether an individual has positive ornegative sensations after smoking marijuana can be influenced by heredity. Arecent study demonstrated that identical male twins were more likely thannonidentical male twins to report similar responses to marijuana use,indicating a genetic basis for their sensations. Identical twins share all oftheir genes, and fraternal twins share about half. Environmental factors suchas the availability of marijuana, expectations about how the drug would affectthem, the influence of friends and social contacts, and other factors thatwould be different even for identical twins also were found to have animportant effect; however, it also was discovered that the twins’ shared orfamily environment before age 18 had no detectable influence on their responseto marijuana.

 

Health Hazards

 

 

Effects of Marijuana on the Brain

 

 

Researchers have found that THC changes the way in which sensoryinformation gets into and is acted on by the hippocampus. This is a componentof the brain’s limbic system that is crucial for learning, memory, and theintegration of sensory experiences with emotions and motivations.Investigations have shown that neurons in the information processing system ofthe hippocampus and the activity of the nerve fibers are suppressed by THC. Inaddition, researchers have discovered that learned behaviors, which depend onthe hippocampus, also deteriorate.

 

 

Recent research findings also indicate that long-term use of marijuanaproduces changes in the brain similar to those seen after long-term use ofother major drugs of abuse.

 

 

Effects on the Lungs

 

 

Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the samerespiratory problems that tobacco smokers have. These individuals may havedaily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chestcolds. Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lungtissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke.

 

 

Regardless of the THC content, the amount of tar inhaled by marijuanasmokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five timesgreater than among tobacco smokers. This may be due to the marijuana usersinhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs.

 

 

Effects on Heart Rate and BloodPressure

 

 

Recent findings indicate that smoking marijuana while shooting upcocaine has the potential to cause severe increases in heart rate and bloodpressure. In one study, experienced marijuana and cocaine users were givenmarijuana alone, cocaine alone, and then a combination of both. Each drug aloneproduced cardiovascular effects; when they were combined, the effects weregreater and lasted longer. The heart rate of the subjects in the studyincreased 29 beats per minute with marijuana alone and 32 beats per minute withcocaine alone. When the drugs were given together, the heart rate increased by49 beats per minute, and the increased rate persisted for a longer time. Thedrugs were given with the subjects sitting quietly. In normal circumstances, anindividual may smoke marijuana and inject cocaine and then do somethingphysically stressful that may significantly increase risks of overload on thecardiovascular system.

 

 

Effects of Heavy Marijuana Use on Learning and SocialBehavior

 

 

A study of college students has shown that critical skills related toattention, memory, and learning are impaired among people who use marijuanaheavily, even after discontinuing its use for at least 24 hours. Researcherscompared 65 heavy users, who had smoked marijuana a median of 29 of the past30 days, and 64 light users, who had smoked a median of 1 of the past 30days. After a closely monitored 19- to 24-hour period of abstinence frommarijuana and other illicit drugs and alcohol, the undergraduates were givenseveral standard tests measuring aspects of attention, memory, and learning.Compared to the light users, heavy marijuana users made more errors and hadmore difficulty sustaining attention, shifting attention to meet the demands ofchanges in the environment, and in registering, processing, and usinginformation. The findings suggest that the greater impairment among heavy usersis likely due to an alteration of brain activity produced bymarijuana.

 

 

Longitudinal research on marijuana use among young people belowcollege age indicates those who used have lower achievement than the non-users,more acceptance of deviant behavior, more delinquent behavior and aggression,greater rebelliousness, poorer relationships with parents, and moreassociations with delinquent and drug-using friends.

 

 

Research also shows more anger and more regressive behavior (thumbsucking, temper tantrums) in toddlers whose parents use marijuana than amongthe toddlers of non-using parents.

 

 

Effects on Pregnancy

 

 

Any drug of abuse can affect a mother’s health during pregnancy, andthis is a time when she should take special care of herself. Drugs of abuse mayinterfere with proper nutrition and rest, which can affect good functioning ofthe immune system. Some studies have found that babies born to mothers who usedmarijuana during pregnancy were smaller than those born to mothers who did notuse the drug. In general, smaller babies are more likely to develop healthproblems.

 

 

A nursing mother who uses marijuana passes some of the THC to the babyin her breast milk. Research indicates that the use of marijuana by a motherduring the first month of breast-feeding can impair the infant’s motordevelopment (control of muscle movement).

 

 

Addictive Potential

 

 

A drug is addicting if it causes compulsive, often uncontrollable drugcraving, seeking, and use, even in the face of negative health and socialconsequences. Marijuana meets this criterion. More than 120,000 people seektreatment per year for their primary marijuana addiction. In addition, animalstudies suggest marijuana causes physical dependence, and some people reportwithdrawal symptoms.

 

 

Extent ofUse

 

 

Monitoring the Future Study (MTF)

 

 

The NIDA-funded MTF provides an annual assessment of drug use among12th, 10th, and 8th grade students and young adults nationwide. Afterdecreasing for over a decade, marijuana use among students began to increase inthe early 1990s. From 1996 to 1997, use of marijuana at least once (lifetimeuse) increased among 12th and 10th graders, continuing the trend seen in recentyears. The seniors’ rate of lifetime marijuana use is higher than any yearsince 1987, but all rates remain well below those seen in the late 1970s andearly 1980s. Past year and past month marijuana use did not changesignificantly from 1996 to 1997 in any of the three grades, suggesting thesharp increases of recent years may be slowing. Daily marijuana use in the pastmonth increased among 12th graders, but decreased among 8th graders; thispattern of increases among older students and stable or declining rates amongyounger students was found with several indicators in the 1997 MTF.

 

Percentage of 8th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana:
Monitoring the Future Study

 

 

 1991
 1993  1995  1997
 10.2%  12.6%  19.9%  22.6%
 6.2  9.2  15.8  17.7
 3.2  5.1  9.1  10.2
 0.2  0.4  0.8  1.1

Percentage of 10th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana:
Monitoring the Future Study

 

 

 1991
 1993  1995  1997
 23.4%  24.4%  34.1%  42.3%
 16.5  19.2  28.7  34.8
 8.7  10.9  17.2  20.5
 0.8  1.0  2.8  3.7

Percentage of 12th-Graders Who Have Used Marijuana
Monitoring the Future Study

 

 

 1979

1991

1993  1995  1997  60.4%  36.7%  35.3%  41.7%  49.6%  50.8  23.9  26.0  34.7  38.5  36.5  13.8  15.5  21.2  23.7  10.3  2.0  2.4  4.6  5.8

Community Epidemiology Work Group(CEWG)

 

 

The resurgence in marijuana use continues, especially amongadolescents, with rates of emergency department mentions of marijuanaincreasing from 1994 to 1995 in 10 cities, the percentage of treatmentadmissions increasing in 13 areas, and the National Institute of Justice’s DrugUse Forecasting (DUF) percentages increasing among juvenile arrests at numeroussites. In several cities, such as Minneapolis/St. Paul, increasing treatmentfigures have been particularly notable among juveniles. Two factors may becontributing to the dramatic leap in adverse consequences: higher potency andthe use of marijuana mixed with or in combination with other dangerousdrugs.

 

 

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse(NHSDA)

 

 

Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit drug in the UnitedStates. There were an estimated 2.4 million people who started using marijuanain 1995. According to data from the 1996 NHSDA, more than 68.6 millionAmericans (32 percent) 12 years of age and older have tried marijuana at leastonce in their lifetimes, and almost 18.4 million (8.6 percent) had usedmarijuana in the past year. In 1985, 56.5 million Americans (29.4 percent) hadtried marijuana at least once in their lifetimes, and 26.1 million (13.6percent) had used marijuana within the past year.

 

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other_oxycontin OxyContin information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction.com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

OxyContin

 

What is OxyContin?

 

<imgsrc=pictures oxycontin_dea.jpg=”” width=”200″ height=”150BORDER=0″>

severe pain. OxyContin is a controlled-release medication that, when used correctly, provides extended relief of pain associated with cancer, back pain, or arthritis. However, often when the drug is abused, the tablets are crushed and snorted, chewed, or mixed with water and injected- eliminating the time-release factor and allowing for a quick and intense rush to the brain. This practice can lead to overdosing on OxyContin’s active ingredient, oxycodone, by releasing too much of the medication into the bloodstream too quickly. OxyContin is highly addictive – so higher doses of the drug must be taken when a tolerance develops. Illicit users of the drug have risen drastically and steadily over the last few years.

Oxy Pills

Street Names

 

 

OxyContin is alsoknown as Oxy, OxyCotton, Oxy 80 (for the 80mg dose), or OC.

 

 

What Does OxyContin LookLike?

 

 

OxyContin most commonly exists in tablet form. These round pills comein 10mg, 20mg, 40mg, 80mg and 160mg dosages. OxyContin also comes in capsule orliquid form.

 

 

Short-term Effects

 

 

The most serious risk associated with OxyContin, is respiratorydepression. Because of this, OxyContin should not be combined with othersubstances that slow down breathing, such as alcohol, antihistamines (like somecold or allergy medication), barbiturates, or benzodiazepines. Other commonside effects include constipation, nausea, sedation, dizziness, vomiting,headache, dry mouth, sweating, and weakness. Toxic overdose and/or death canoccur by taking the tablet broken, chewed, or crushed. People who abuse thedrug (by removing the time-release coating) will experience effects for up to 5hours. The high that is felt is opiate-like – a sedate, euphoric feeling.

 

 

Long-termEffects

 

 

Using OxyContin chronically can result in increased tolerance to thedrug in which higher doses of the medication must be taken to receive theinitial effect. Over time, OxyContin will be come physically addictive, causinga person to experience withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not present.Symptoms of withdrawal include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia,diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and involuntary legmovements.

 

44 8
other_pcp pcp (phencyclidine) information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaineaddiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

pcp (phencyclidine) information

PCP
PCP

PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol. It has a distinctive bitter chemical taste. PCP can be mixed easily with dyes and turns up on the illicit drug market in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders. It is normally used in one of three ways: snorted, smoked, or eaten. For smoking, PCP is often applied to a leafy material such as mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana.

Health Hazards

 

 

PCP is addicting; that is, its use often leads to psychologicaldependence, craving, and compulsive PCP-seeking behavior. It was firstintroduced as a street drug in the 1960s and quickly gained a reputation as adrug that could cause bad reactions and was not worth the risk. Many people,after using the drug once, will not knowingly use it again. Yet others use itconsistently and regularly. Some persist in using PCP because of its addictingproperties. Others cite feelings of strength, power, invulnerability and anumbing effect on the mind as reasons for their continued PCP use.

 

 

Many PCP users are brought to emergency rooms because of PCP’sunpleasant psychological effects or because of overdoses. In a hospital ordetention setting, they often become violent or suicidal, and are verydangerous to themselves and to others. They should be kept in a calm settingand should not be left alone.

 

 

At low to moderate doses, physiological effects of PCP include aslight increase in breathing rate and a more pronounced rise in blood pressureand pulse rate. Respiration becomes shallow, and flushing and profuse sweatingoccur. Generalized numbness of the extremities and muscular incoordination alsomay occur. Psychological effects include distinct changes in body awareness,similar to those associated with alcohol intoxication. Use of PCP amongadolescents may interfere with hormones related to normal growth anddevelopment as well as with the learning process.

 

 

At high doses of PCP, there is a drop in blood pressure, pulse rate,and respiration. This may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision,flicking up and down of the eyes, drooling, loss of balance, and dizziness.High doses of PCP can also cause seizures, coma, and death (though death moreoften results from accidental injury or suicide during PCP intoxication).Psychological effects at high doses include illusions and hallucinations. PCPcan cause effects that mimic the full range of symptoms of schizophrenia, suchas delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, a sensation of distance from one’senvironment, and catatonia. Speech is often sparse and garbled.

 

 

People who use PCP for long periods report memory loss, difficultieswith speech and thinking, depression, and weight loss. These symptoms canpersist up to a year after cessation of PCP use. Mood disorders also have beenreported. PCP has sedative effects, and interactions with other central nervoussystem depressants, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines, can lead to coma oraccidental overdose.

 

 

Extent ofUse

 

 

Monitoring the Future Study (MTF)

 

 

NIDA’s 1997 MTF shows that use of PCP by high school seniors hasdeclined steadily since 1979, when 7.0 percent of seniors had used PCP in theyear preceding the survey. In 1997, however, 2.3 percent of seniors used PCP atleast once in the past year, up from a low of 1.2 percent in 1990. Past monthuse among seniors decreased from 1.3 percent in 1996 to 0.7 percent in1997.

 

Percentage of 12th-graders who have used PCP:
Monitoringthe Future Study

 

 

 1979
 1991  1993  1995  1997
 12.8%  2.9%  2.9%  2.7%  3.9%
 7.0  1.4  1.4  1.8  2.3
 2.4  0.5  1.0  0.6  0.7

 

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse(NHSDA)

 

 

According to the 1996 NHSDA, 3.2 percent of the population aged 12 andolder have used PCP at least once. Lifetime use of PCP was higher among thoseaged 26 through 34 (4.2 percent) than for those 18 through 25 (2.3 percent) andthose 12 through 17 (1.2 percent).

 

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other_psyc side effects of anti-depressant drugs by Narconon Arrowhead &cocaine addiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

side effects of commonly prescribed anti-depressant drugs

Anti-depressantdrugs are NOT USED at our facility but are routinelyprescribed at many treatment facilities around the country. These includeZoloft, Wellbutrin, Haldol, Prozac, Trazodone, Celexa and others.

 

anti-depressant drugs

 

These drugs are commonly prescribed in treatment as a meansof treating depression or bi-polar’ disorder. The contents of the followinglist is one of the reasons we do not use medications for treatment, and whymany times these treatments are completely ineffective.

 

 

ProzacCelexa – <ahref=#luvox>Luvox – Paxil – <ahref=#zoloft>Zoloft – Desyrel/trazodoneEffexorSerzoneWellbutrin/Zyban – <ahref=#tofranil>Tofranil/imipramine – <ahref=#anafranil>Anafranil/Norpramin/desipramine – <ahref=#asendin>Asendin – Elavil/amitriptylineRemeronParnateNardil

 

 



side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Headache, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, anxiety, tremor, dizziness, fatigue, sedation, poor concentration, abnormal dreams, agitation, convulsions, apathy, euphoria, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis

 

gastrointestinal: Nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, cramps, vomiting, taste changes, flatulence, decreased appetite

 

skin: Sweating, rash, pruritus, acne, alopecia, urticaria

 

respiratory: Infection, pharyngitis, nasal congestion, sinus headache, sinusitis, cough, dyspnea, bronchitis, asthma, hyperventilation, pneumonia

 

cardiovascular: Hot flashes, palpitations, angina pectoris, hemorrhage, hypertension, tachycardia, first-degree AV block, bradycardia, MI, thrombophlebitis

 

musculoskeletal: Pain, arthritis, twitching

 

urinary: Dysmenorrhea, decreased libido, urinary frequency, UTI, amenorrhea, cystitis, impotence, urine retention

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Visual changes, ear/eye pain, photophobia, tinnitus

 

systemic: Asthenia, viral infection, fever, allergy, chills

Celexa: citalopram Pronounced (sigh-tal´oh-pram)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

 

central nervous system: Headache, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, anxiety, tremor, dizziness, fatigue, sedation, poor concentration, abnormal dreams, agitation, convulsions, apathy, euphoria, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis

 

gastrointestinal: Nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, cramps, vomiting, taste changes, flatulence, decreased appetite

 

skin: Sweating, rash, pruritus, acne, alopecia, urticaria

 

respiratory: Infection, pharyngitis, nasal congestion, sinus headache, sinusitis, cough, dyspnea, bronchitis, asthma, hyperventilation, pneumonia

 

cardiovascular: Hot flashes, palpitations, angina pectoris, hemorrhage, hypertension, tachycardia, first-degree AV block, bradycardia, MI, thrombophlebitis

 

musculoskeletal: Pain, arthritis, twitching

 

urinary: Dysmenorrhea, decreased libido, urinary frequency, UTI, amenorrhea, cystitis, impotence, urine retention

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Visual changes, ear/eye pain, photophobia, tinnitus

 

systemic: Asthenia, viral infection, fever, allergy, chills

Luvox: Fluvoxamine pronounced (flu-vox´a-meen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Headache, drowsiness, dizziness, convulsions, sleep disorders

 

gastrointestinal: Nausea, anorexia, constipation, hepatotoxicity, vomiting, diarrhea

 

skin: Rash, sweating

 

urinary: Decreased libido

Paxil: Paroxetine pronounced (par-ox´e-teen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Headache, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, anxiety, tremor, dizziness, fatigue, sedation, abnormal dreams, agitation, apathy, euphoria, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis

 

gastrointestinal: Nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, cramps, vomiting, taste changes, flatulence, decreased appetite

 

skin: Sweating, rash

 

respiratory: Infection, pharyngitis, nasal congestion, sinus headache, sinusitis, cough, dyspnea

 

cardiovascular: Vasodilation, postural hypotension, palpitations

 

musculoskeletal: Pain, arthritis, myalgia, myopathy, myosthenia

 

urinary: Dysmenorrhea, decreased libido, urinary frequency, UTI, amenorrhea, cystitis, impotence, abnormal ejaculation

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Visual changes

 

systemic: Asthenia, fever

Zoloft: sertraline pronounced (ser´tra-leen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Insomnia, agitation, somnolence, dizziness, headache, tremor, fatigue, paresthesia, twitching, confusion, ataxia, gait abnormality (elderly)

 

urinary: Male sexual dysfunction, micturition disorder

 

gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea, constipation, anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, vomiting, flatulence

 

cardiovascular: Palpitations, chest pain

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Vision abnormalities

 

skin: Increased sweating, rash, hot flashes

endocrine: SIADH (elderly)

Desyrel: trazodone pronounced (tray´zoe-done)

 

Desyrel Dividose, trazodone HCl

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

blood: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (elderly), increase in psychiatric symptoms

 

gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus, increased appetite, cramps, epigastric distress, jaundice, hepatitis, stomatitis

 

urinary: Retention, acute renal failure, priapism

 

skin: Rash, urticaria, sweating, pruritus, photosensitivity

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, tinnitus, mydriasis

Effexor: venlafaxine pronounced (ven-la-fax´een)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Emotional lability, vertigo, apathy, ataxia, CNS stimulation, euphoria, hallucinations, hostility, increased libido, hypertonia, hypotonia, psychosis

 

cardiovascular: Migraine, angina pectoris, hypertension, extrasystoles, postural hypotension, syncope, thrombophlebitis

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Abnormal vision, ear pain, cataract, conjunctivitis, corneal lesions, dry eyes, otitis media, photophobia

 

gastrointestinal: Dysphagia, eructation, colitis, gastritis, gingivitis, rectal hemorrhage, stomatitis, stomach and mouth ulceration

 

urinary: Anorgasmia, dysuria, hematuria, metrorrhagia, vaginitis, impaired urination, albuminuria, amenorrhea, kidney calculus, cystitis, nocturia, breast and bladder pain, polyuria, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage, moniliasis

 

skin: Ecchymosis, acne, alopecia, brittle nails, dry skin, photosensitivity

 

metabolism: Peripheral edema, weight gain, diabetes mellitus, edema, glycosuria, hyperlipemia, hypokalemia

 

musculoskeletal: Arthritis, bone pain, bursitis, myasthenia tenosynovitis

 

respiratory: Bronchitis, dyspnea, asthma, chest congestion, epistaxis, hyperventilation, laryngitis

 

systemic: Accidental injury, malaise, neck pain, enlarged abdomen, cyst, facial edema, hangover, hernia

Serzone: nefazodone pronounced (ne-faz´o-done)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

central nervous system: Somnolence, dizziness, headache, insomnia

 

gastrointestinal: Nausea, constipation, dry mouth

 

urinary: Urinary frequency, retention, UTI

 

cardiovascular: Postural hypotension

 

respiratory: Pharyngitis, cough

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, abnormal vision

Wellbutrin: Bupropion pronounced (byoo-proe´pee-on)

 

Wellbutrin SR, Zyban

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

 

central nervous system: Headache, agitation, confusion, seizures, akathisia, delusions, insomnia, sedation, tremors

 

cardiovascular: Dysrhythmias, hypertension, palpitations, tachycardia, hypotension

gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, increased appetite, constipation

 

urinary: Impotence, frequency, retention

 

skin: Rash, pruritus, sweating

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, auditory disturbance

Tofranil: imipramine pronounced (im-ip´ra-meen)

 

Apo-Imipramine*, imipramine HCl*, Impril*, Janimine, Novo-Pramine*, SK-Pramine, Tofranil, Tofranil PM, Tripramine

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

blood: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (elderly), increased psychiatric symptoms, paresthesia

 

gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus; increased appetite; cramps, epigastric distress, jaundice, hepatitis, stomatitis

 

urinary: Retention, acute renal failure

 

skin: Rash, urticaria, sweating, pruritus, photosensitivity

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, tinnitus, mydriasis


desipramine HCl, Norpramin, Pertofrane clomipramine pronounced (kloe-mip´ra-meen)

 


side effects/adverse reactions:

 

blood: Agranulocytosis, neutropenia, pancytopenia

 

cardiovascular: Hypotension, tachycardia, cardiac arrest

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, tremors, mania, seizures, aggressiveness, EPS endocrine: Galactorrhea, hyperprolactinmia

 

metabolism: Hyponatremia

 

gastrointestinal: Constipation, dry mouth, nausea, dyspepsia

 

urinary: Delayed ejaculation, anorgasmy, retention

 

skin: Diaphoresis, photosensitivity

 

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

 

blood: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (elderly), increased psychiatric symptoms, paresthesia, impairment of sexual functioning

 

gastrointestinal: Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus, increased appetite, cramps, epigastric distress, jaundice, hepatitis, stomatitis

 

urinary: Retention, acute renal failure

 

skin: Rash, urticaria, sweating, pruritus, photosensitivity

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, tinnitus, mydriasis, ophthalmoplegia

Elavil: amitriptyline pronounced (a-mee-trip´ti-leen)

 

Amitril, amitriptylline HCI, Apo-Amitriptyline*, Emitrip, Endep, Enovil, Levate*, Meravil*, Novotriptyn*, Rolavil*

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

blood: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (elderly), increased psychiatric symptoms, seizures

 

gastrointestinal: Constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus, increased appetite, cramps, epigastric distress, jaundice, hepatitis, stomatitis

 

urinary: Retention

 

skin: Rash, urticaria, sweating, pruritus, photosensitivity

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, tinnitus, mydriasis, ophthalmoplegia

Remeron: mirtazapine pronounced (mer-ta´za-peen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

blood: Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (elderly), increased psychiatric symptoms, seizures

 

gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus, increased appetite, cramps, epigastric distress, jaundice, hepatitis, stomatitis

 

urinary: Retention, acute renal failure

 

skin: Rash, urticaria, sweating, pruritus, photosensitivity

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision, tinnitus, mydriasis

Parnate: tranylcypromine pronounced (tran-ill-sip´roe-meen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

blood: Anemia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, hyperreflexia, mania, insomnia, fatigue, weight gain

 

gastrointestinal: Constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, weight gain

 

urinary: Change in libido, urinary frequency

 

skin: Rash, flushing, increased perspiration

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, dysrhythmias, hypertensive crisis

 

ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision

endocrine: SIADH-like syndrome

Nardil: phenelzine pronounced (fen´el-zeen)

 

side effects/adverse reactions:

 

blood: Anemia

 

central nervous system: Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, hyperreflexia, mania, insomnia, fatigue, weight gain

 

gastrointestinal: Constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, weight gain

 

urinary: Change in libido, frequency

 

skin: Rash, flushing, increased perspiration

 

cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, dysrhythmias, hypertensive crisis ears, eyes, nose, & throat: Blurred vision

 

endocrine: SIADH-like syndrome

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other_speed speed, crystal meth, crank, and methamphetamine by NarcononArrowhead & cocaine addiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

Methamphetamine information

Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is madein illegal laboratories and has a high potential for abuse and dependence.Street methamphetamine is referred to by many names, such as speed, meth,and chalk. Methamphetamine hydrochloride, clear chunky crystals resemblingice, which can be inhaled by smoking, is referred to as ice, crystal, andglass.

 

Health Hazards

 

 

Methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine,which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement. It also appearsto have a neurotoxic effect, damaging brain cells that contain dopamine andserotonin, another neurotransmitter. Over time, methamphetamine appears tocause reduced levels of dopamine, which can result in symptoms like those ofParkinson’s disease, a severe movement disorder.

 

 

Methamphetamine is taken orally or intranasally (snorting the powder),by intravenous injection, and by smoking. Immediately after smoking orintravenous injection, the methamphetamine user experiences an intensesensation, called a rush or flash, that lasts only a few minutes and isdescribed as extremely pleasurable. Oral or intranasal use produces euphoria -a high, but not a rush. Users may become addicted quickly, and use it withincreasing frequency and in increasing doses.

 

 

Animal research going back more than 20 years shows that high doses ofmethamphetamine damage neuron cell-endings. Dopamine- and serotonin-containingneurons do not die after methamphetamine use, but their nerve endings(terminals) are cut back and re-growth appears to be limited.

 

 

The central nervous system (CNS) actions that result from taking evensmall amounts of methamphetamine include increased wakefulness, increasedphysical activity, decreased appetite, increased respiration, hyperthermia, andeuphoria. Other CNS effects include irritability, insomnia, confusion, tremors,convulsions, anxiety, paranoia, and aggressiveness. Hyperthermia andconvulsions can result in death.

 

 

Methamphetamine causes increased heart rate and blood pressure and cancause irreversible damage to blood vessels in the brain, producing strokes.Other effects of methamphetamine include respiratory problems, irregularheartbeat, and extreme anorexia. Its use can result in cardiovascular collapseand death.

 

 

A study in Seattle confirmed that methamphetamine use was widespreadamong the city’s homosexual and bisexual populations. Of these groups, membersusing methamphetamine reported they practice sexual and needle-use behaviorsthat place them at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV and AIDS.

 

 

Extent of Use

 

 

Monitoring the Future Study (MTF)

 

 

MTF assesses the extent of drug use among adolescents (8th-, 10th-,and 12th-graders) and young adults across the country. Recent data from thesurvey:

 

  • In 1997, 4.4 percent of high school seniors had used crystal methamphetamine at least once in their lifetimes – an increase from 2.7 percent in 1990.

  • Data show that 2.3 percent of seniors reported past year use of crystal methamphetamine in 1997 – an increase from 1.3 percent in 1990.

 

Community Epidemiology Work Group(CEWG)

 

 

Methamphetamine is the dominant illicit drug problem in San Diego. SanFrancisco and Honolulu also have substantial methamphetamine- usingpopulations. Patterns of increasing use have been seen in Denver, Los Angeles,Minneapolis, Phoenix, Seattle, and Tucson. New trafficking patterns haveincreased availability of the drug in Missouri, Nebraska, and Iowa.

 

 

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse(NHSDA)

 

 

According to the 1996 NHSDA, 4.9 million people (aged 12 and older)had tried methamphetamine at least once in their lifetimes (2.3 percent ofpopulation). This is not a statistically significant increase from 4.7 millionpeople (2.2 percent) who reported using methamphetamine at least once in theirlifetime in the 1995 NHSDA.

 

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photos photos of & information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaineaddiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

photos of

Narconon

Narconon

With over 100 dedicated staff to service the needs of our clients, it is no wonder we consistently produce drug free people who are valuable contributing members of society.

®

drug rehabilitation services. This doesn’t mean students can’t enjoy the amenities that accompany the resort facility, but it does mean the focus is always on recovery from drug and alcohol addiction.

Narconon
Narconon Arrowhead is 217 acres of property on the shores of scenic Lake Eufaula, the largest lake in Oklahoma. Surrounded by Arrowhead State Park, this modern facility offers the perfect environment for recovery. There are many activities to complement the most successful drug rehabilitation technology available today.

Drug-free


®

Drug-FreeWithdrawal

 

student
Student Residences


The semi-private student rooms each have their own bathroom and dressing area and most command a view of the lake.


®

Rehabilitation Services

Narconon


®

New Life Detoxification Program

Key to keeping students off drugsis the New Life Detoxification Program. A specific program of exercise, saunaand vitamins to remove the drug residuals and other environmental toxins thathave accumulated in the body tissues. Residual drug metabolites can triggerdrug and alcohol cravings as well as flashbacks years after a person hasceased taking drugs.

Person

sauna

The Narconon New Life Detoxification Program frees individuals from the restimulative effects of residuals of the chemicals, drugs and other toxic substances they have been exposed to throughout their life.

 

The Detoxification Program is delivered in our state of the art saunas. The saunas include dual heaters with professional quality exercise equipment, cool-down showers and private dressing accommodations.

Narconon

Course Room

®

Course Supervisors andcourseroom

Narconon Course Supervisors arededicated, hard working and extremely adept at spotting and correcting studentswho misunderstand course concepts. Using the study technology developed byL.Ron Hubbard – a breakthrough in the field of education that is recognized byeducators around the world – students are kept out of the fog of confusion andrapidly progress through their program.

 

 

The support of friends and family is important to the success of every student as they work through the Narconon program courses. Narconon Arrowhead employs a team of Program Support Service staff whose main objectives are to keep students moving through their programs smoothly and be the contact point for friends and family. Students are about to confront the very things that resulted in their addiction and often need help sorting this out.

Program Support Services also coordinate extracurricular activities for students who achieve their course targets. There is lots of support and camaraderie among students at Narconon Arrowhead.

The Student Lounge includes movie viewing, ping-pong, access to weight rooms and other recreational equipment and activities.

 

®

Ethics Officers

Ethics consists of the actions an individual takes on himself to make long-term, pro-survival decisions. As Narconon clientele have a history of making decisions that do not promote survival, instruction in the technology of ethics is a keynote of the Narconon program.

Our team of Ethics Officers are also responsible for providing a safe, disturbance-free and drug-free environment for Narconon Arrowhead public and staff, where productive staff are protected and the valuable final products of the Narconon program are achieved.

 

 

Our professional, experienced staff are dedicated to saving the lives of people destroyed by the effects of drug and alcohol abuse.
Know that at Narconon Arrowhead you have found the best place possible.

 

Staff Commitment

 

Helping save a life is the single most important objective of the entire Narconon Arrowhead staff. Call our Registration and Intake Counselors for program details and help with your decisions.

 

Admissions

 

1-800-468-6933

 

The center is available to accept calls 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

write to an Intake Counselor for more information:

 

Canadian, Oklahoma 74425

 

Or send us an email

 

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prescription_drugs perscription drug information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaineaddiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

<h+1>Prescription Drug Information
<h+1>Prescription DrugAbuse

The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a serious public health concern. Nonmedical use of prescription drugs like opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and stimulants can lead to abuse and addiction, characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use.

In 1999, an estimated 4 million people, about 2 percent of the population age 12 and older, were currently (use in past month) using prescription drugs non-medically. Of these, 2.6 million misused pain relievers, 1.3 million misused sedatives and tranquilizers, and 0.9 million misused stimulants. While prescription drug abuse affects many Americans, some trends of particular concern can be seen among older adults, adolescents, and women.

The misuse of prescribed medications may be the most common form of drug abuse among the elderly. Older people are prescribed medications about three times more frequently than the general population, and have poorer compliance with directions for use.

The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse numbers indicate that the sharpest increases in new users of prescription drugs for non-medical purposes occur in 12 to 17 and 18 to 25 year-olds. Among 12 to 14 year-olds, psychotherapeutics (e.g., pain killers, tranquilizers, sedatives, and stimulants) were reported to be one of two primary drugs used.

Overall, men and women have roughly similar rates of nonmedical use of prescription drugs, with the exception of 12 to 17 year olds. In this age group, young women are more likely than young men to use psychotherapeutic drugs nonmedically. Also, among women and men who use either a sedative, anti-anxiety drug, or hypnotic, women are almost twice as likely to become addicted.

The Drug Abuse Warning Network, which collects data on drug-related hospital emergency room episodes, reported that mentions of hydrocodone as a cause for visiting an emergency room increased 37 percent among all age groups from 1997 to 1999. Also, mentions of clonazepam increased 102 percent since 1992.

 

Some Commonly PrescribedMedications: Use and Consequences

 

 

 

 

Oxycodone (OxyContin)
Propoxyphene (Darvon)
Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
Meperidine (Demerol)
Diphenoxylate (Lomotil)

Barbiturates

Pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal)

Benzodiazepines

Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (Librium)
Alprazolam (Xanax)
Triazolam (Halcion)
Estazolam (ProSom)

 

 

 

 

Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate (Meridia)

 

 

 

Postsurgical pain relief
Management of acute or chronic pain
Relief of coughs and diarrhea

 

 

 

 

Anxiety
Tension
Panic attacks
Acute stress reactions
Sleep disorders
Anesthesia (at high doses)

 

 

 

 

Narcolepsy
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Depression that does not respond to other treatment
Short-term treatment of obesity
Asthma

 

 

 

Opioids attach to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain messages to the brain.

 

 

CNS depressants slow brain activity through actions on the GABA system and, therefore, produce a calming effect.

 

 

Stimulants enhance brain activity, causing an increase in alertness, attention, and energy.

 

 

 

Blocked pain messages
Drowsiness
Constipation
Depressed respiration
(depending on dose)

 

 

 

A sleepy and uncoordinated feeling during the first few days, as the body becomes accustomed – tolerant – to the effects, these feelings diminish.

 

 

 

Elevated blood pressure
Increased heart rate
Increased respiration
Suppressed appetite
Sleep deprivation

 

Potential for tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawal, and/or addiction

 

Potential for tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawal, and/or addiction

 

Potential for addiction

 

Severe respiratory depression or death following a large single dose

 

Seizures following a rebound in brain activity after reducing or discontinuing use

 

 

 

Dangerously high body temperatures or an irregular heartbeat after taking high doses

For some stimulants, hostility or feelings of paranoia after taking high doses repeatedly over a short period of time

 

 

Other substances that cause CNS depression, including

Antihistamines
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
General anesthetics

 

Other substances that cause CNS depression, including

Prescription opioid pain medicines
Some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications

 

 

 

Over-the-counter cold medicines containing decongestants
Antidepressants, unless supervised by a physician
Some asthma medications

44 8
program causes, cycle, & biochemical aspects of cocaine & crackaddiction by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction .com

<h+1>The Causes of Addiction
No one wants to be a drug addict or alcoholic, but this doesn’t stop people from getting addicted. The most commonly asked question is simply – how? How could my son, daughter, father, sister, or brother become a liar, a thief, someone who can’t be trusted? How could this happen? Why won’t they stop? Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>The Cycle of Addiction
We start off with an individual who, like most people in our society, is basically good. This person encounters a problem or discomfort that they do not know how to resolve or cannot confront. This could include problems such as difficulty “fitting in” as a child or teenager, anxiety due to peer pressure or work expectations, identity problems or divorce as an adult. It can also include physical discomfort, such as an injury or chronic pain. The person experiencing the discomfort has a real problem. He feels his present situation is unendurable, yet sees no good solution to the problem. This is the cycle of addiction. Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>The Biochemical Aspects of Addiction
When a person uses drugs over a period of time, the body becomes unable to completely eliminate them all. Drugs are broken down in the liver. The resulting metabolites, although removed rapidly from the blood stream, become trapped in the fatty tissues where they remain for years. Tissues in our bodies that are high in fats are turned over very slowly. When they are turned over, the stored drug metabolites are released into the blood stream and reactivate the same brain centers as if the person actually took the drug. The former addict now experiences a drug restimulation (or “flashback”) and drug craving. This is common in the months after an addict quits and can continue to occur for years, even decades. Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>Ending Addiction the Narconon Way
The Narconon program, unlike more traditional treatment, deals with both the physical and mental problems brought about by drug use. Our goal is to assist the addict, both mentally and physically, to become a whole and sane person capable of dealing with life’s many and varied challenges. The end result is a success rate that is 3 to 4 times that of other programs. None of these solutions involves the use of any drug.Click here or the title above for the full text.

<h+1>L. Ron Hubbard and the Narconon program

The Narconon program has from the beginning been founded on key principles developed by author and humanitarian L. Ron Hubbard. The keynote is that an individual is responsible for his own condition and that anyone can improve his condition if he is given a workable way to do so. It is based on improved understanding of his fundamental nature: that man is basically good and it is pain, suffering, and loss that lead him astray.Click here or the title above for the full text.

<h+1>The Origins of the Narconon program

On August 2, 1965, William Benitez, an inmate at Arizona State Prison jumped down from his double bunk in the old cellblock where he was housed and made the following notation on his wall calendar: “Decision to set up Narcotic Foundation.” He also circled the 18th of the same month, his target date to approach prison officials to request permission to set up a drug rehabilitation program inside the prison walls. Click here or the title above for the full text.

44 8
research cocaine & crack addiction & detoxification research byNarconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

<h+1>Results Overview
The Narconon

®

drug rehabilitation program addresses various aspects of addiction, with the result being that over 70% of those graduating the Narconon program are drug-free two years later. This is in contrast to the 30% of more traditional programs.Click here or the title above for the full text.

<h+1>Ongoing Evaluation
During the past three years, there has been an ongoing evaluation of the Narconon drug rehabilitation program at two Narconon facilities in the United States. This ongoing evaluation is aimed at both monitoring some of the factors involved in delivery of the Narconon program and at assessing the long term results of this comprehensive socio-educational approach. Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>Reduction of Drug Residues
It is increasingly evident that the accumulation of drug residues and their fat-bonding metabolites in the body plays a role in drug addiction. Such residues are associated with persistent symptoms and their mobilization from body stores into blood correlates with drug craving. A detoxification method developed by L. Ron Hubbard was specifically targeted at reducing levels of fat-stored chemical resides in the body and thereby alleviating the long-term effects of such compounds. We were interested in determining whether drugs were eliminated during this program and, if so, what types of symptomatic changes occurred as a consequence. Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>Precipitation of Cocaine Metabolites
Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine metabolites may accumulate in the body and that several days to weeks may be required for their elimination. Treatment outcome may be enhanced by methods which accelerate the safe and rapid elimination of drug metabolites. This preliminary study was conducted to determine if a detoxification program utilizing sauna baths as one component may precipitate the presence of cocaine metabolites in urine and sweat. Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>Detoxification Program: Review of Literature
A Review of Scientific Literature Supporting the Detoxification method developed by L. Ron Hubbard Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>Detoxification Program: Paper Summaries
Summaries of Published Papers Regarding the Detoxification method developed by L. Ron Hubbard.Click here or the title above for the full text.
<h+1>AAEM Presentation Summary
The long-term success rate for most drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs is not extremely high. Abstinence from drugs for 2 years after undergoing rehabilitation treatment by 30% of the patients is considered quite acceptable. This means that 70% of the patients are not succeeding in staying off of drugs. Such a recidivism rate is cause for deep concern. One hypothesis is that a hidden cause of recidivism amongst drug abusers is the presence in their bodies of residual levels of drugs and their metabolites. This led to the proposition that removing these compounds from the body would assist in the recovery of the drug abuser. One program documented to reduce levels of fat-stored xenobiotics is the detoxification method developed by Hubbard. The program aims to mobilize and eliminate fat-stored xenobiotics.Click here or the title above for the full text.

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research_aaem research paper on the success of the Narconon® detoxificationprogram by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction .com.

Summary of a Presentation Made to the American Academy of Environmental Medicine

Presented by David R. Root, MD.,1989

 

Dr. David Root is a physician specializing inoccupational medicine with a private practice in Sacramento. California. He hastreated numerous patients who had accumulated lipophilic chemicals throughoccupational exposure, using the method of detoxification developed by L. RonHubbard. In the course of his work, he has also treated approximately 75 drugabusers with this detoxification program. He recently reported the results of afollow-up study of these drug abuse patients at the annual meeting of theAmerican Academy of Environmental Medicine.

The long-term success rate fordrug and alcohol rehabilitation programs is not extremely high. Abstinence fromdrugs for 2 years after undergoing rehabilitation treatment by 30% of thepatients is considered quite acceptable. This means that 70% of the patientsare not succeeding in staying off of drugs. Such a recidivism rate is cause fordeep concern. One hypothesis is that a hidden cause of recidivism amongst drugabusers is the presence in their bodies of residual levels of drugs and theirmetabolites. This led to the proposition that removing these compounds from thebody would assist in the recovery of the drug abuser.

One programdocumented to reduce levels of fat-stored xenobiotics is the detoxificationmethod developed by Hubbard. This program was originally developed to assist inthe recovery of drug abusers. The program aims to mobilize and eliminatefat-stored xenobiotics. We have treated drug abusers using this detoxificationprocedure as the chief component of a drug rehabilitation program.

This program consists of the following components:

1. Initialinterview.
2. Drug withdrawal (no drugs are administered).
3.Detoxification with Hubbard’s method.
3b. Stress handling as required.
4. Follow-up.

In the initial interview, the particular needs of thepatient are assessed. We refer patients who are addicted to either crackcocaine or to heroin to facilities better able to meet their needs.
Drugwithdrawal is medically supervised. Drugs are not administered during thisstep. The patient then undertakes Hubbard’s detoxification program. Thisprogram lasts for about 30 days. During this phase it sometimes becomesapparent that other factors are reducing a patient’s ability to stay offdrugs. In such cases, stress handling is added to the program. The patientidentifies those factors or individuals which encourage his or her drug use andworks out a program to handle such factors so that they no longer cause him touse drugs.

We actively follow up each patient to make sure that he orshe is able to stay off of drugs.

We have been delivering this programfor 5 years. Recently, we conducted a follow-up interview of all availablepatients to assess the long-term efficacy of this program.

PRETREATMENT
ALCOHOL 22
39
COCAINE 0
32
LSD/HALLUCINOGENS 0
8
OTHER OPIATES 0
13
OTHERS 3

POLYDRUG USE

Another way of monitoring the effectiveness of the program is by the number of drugs used by individuals before and after treatment. The average number of drugs used by individuals dropped from 4.7 different drugs before treatment to 0.6 after treatment. Alcohol was still used by all of those reporting drug use after treatment while four individuals reported using additional drugs.

2. FAMILY RELATIONS

At this follow-up interview, patients were asked about their current family relationships as well as their drug use. 23 reported that their family scene was much better, 14 said that it was better, 7 indicated that ii was about the same and I did not answer. None of the patients stated that their family scene had worsened since treatment.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILES

Work situations had also undergone change in some cases. 31 were already holding steady jobs prior to treatment. Following treatment, this number increased to 38. The number working inconsistently dropped from 6 to 3. The number who did nothing went from 5 to 1. The number of students remained the same. Of note, the one individual who supported himself through criminal activities prior to treatment now worked a steady job.

PATIENTS’ OPINIONS

These patients’ opinions of the program were quite encouraging. 29 rated the program as very positive with another 13 rating it positively. 3 were indifferent and none were negative. Of the 45 surveyed, 39 have recommended this program to others.

SUMMARY

In sum, over the last five years, patients with drug abuse problems have been treated with Hubbard’s detoxification program, aimed at removing fat-stored xenobiotics. These patients have been assessed by personal follow-up interviews for ongoing drug abuse and social parameters. The reported rates of recovery from these patients are quite high, with 91% of those interviewed reporting no ongoing drug abuse.

These data support the hypothesis that a hidden cause of recidivism amongst drug abusers is the presence in their bodies of residual levels of drugs and their metabolites.

44 8
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The Narconon Drug Rehabilitation Program: Ongoing Program Evaluation

September 11-12, 1997
Presentation by Shelley L. Beckman. Ph.D.
International Conference on Human Detoxification

Introduction

 

During the past three years, therehas been an ongoing evaluation of the Narconon program at two Narcononfacilities in the United States. These facilities are located in Los Angeles,California, and Chilocco, Oklahoma. This ongoing evaluation is aimed at bothmonitoring some of the factors involved in delivery of the Narconon program andat assessing the long term results of this comprehensive socio-educationalapproach.

 

 

The purpose of this evaluation wasthree-fold:

 

  1. The first goal of this evaluation was to monitor ongoing delivery to the clients at both Narconon facilities. Daily and weekly reports provided information on each client on the program. This ongoing evaluation afforded a detailed picture of what it takes to deliver rehabilitation service to hard core drug addicts.

  2. The second goal of this study was to evaluate the success of the Narconon program in retaining clients through the full treatment regimen.

  3. The third goal of this study was to assess the long term efficacy of the Narconon program. Efficacy measures included ability to stay off of drugs, criminal behavior and educational or career progress

 

StudyDesign

 

 

The client population includedevery client who started the Narconon program at either Narconon Los Angeles orNarconon Chilocco during the study period. By including every client we avoidedbias in the selection.

 

 

The initial evaluation included acomprehensive interview based on the widely used Addiction Severity Index andquantitative testing for drugs of abuse in a urine sample, taken on arrival.(The severity index has been used in many evaluations of drug rehabilitationprograms.)

 

 

The progress of each client wasthen monitored throughout the study via a daily report and periodic urinetesting.

 

 

A total of 273 clientsparticipated in this study.

 

 

Demographics

 

 

The clientele at differentNarconon facilities do vary considerably. Factors such as regional problemswith drug abuse and governmental support for drug rehabilitation play importantroles. To apply the results of this study, it is important to know somethingabout the clients at the two Narconon facilities that were being evaluated.

 

  • 81% of the clients participating in this study were male, 19% were female.

  • The average age was 30.7 +/- 8.6 years. (Range 14-66 years).

  • 67% were Caucasian, 13% Hispanic, 9% American Indian, 8% African-American and 3% other.

 

Education andEmployment

 

 

The educational level wascomparable to some other drug rehabilitation programs. 20% of these clients hadnot completed high school. 80% had completed high school or above, 14% had goneto trade school or junior college after high school, 9% had completed collegeand 2% had post-graduate degrees such as a masters in business or science or adoctorate degree.

 

 

Work Patterns

 

 

About half of these clients werecurrently working. 60% report their usual pattern is to work full time, yet:

 

  • 46% did not work in the last 30 days.

  • Only 37% were currently employed.

 

Many clients had recently losttheir jobs – being fired or leaving work due to their drug abuse problems.

 

 

Legal Involvement

 

 

Of the clients participating inthis study:

 

  • 22% admitted having engaged in illegal activity for profit in the last 30 days.

  • On average, those who were currently engaged in illegal activities admitted to having done so 13 of the last 30 days.

 

From alonger Term View

 

  • 81% of these Narconon clients had been incarcerated in their lifetime.

  • 33% of these clients had been incarcerated for greater than a month.

  • 13% had been incarcerated for greater than a year in their lifetimes.

  • On average, they had been in jail 4.3 +/- 10.5 months in their lifetimes.

 

There is a major problem withillegal activities in this group. As described later, the Narconon program doeshave a very positive effect on these statistics.

 

 

Drugs ofAbuse

 

 

The preferred drug of abuse doesvary considerably among clients participating in the Narconon program. Theprimary drug of abuse for clients in this study was the following:

 

 

Crack Cocaine 65           (24%)
Alcohol 52           (19%)
Other Forms of Cocaine 36           (13%)
Heroin 34           (12%)
Amphetamines 33           (12%)
Marijuana 33           (2%)
LSD 06           (2%)
PCP 04           (1%)
Inhalants 02           (1%)
Mixtures 36           (13%)

 

 

During the time frame of thisstudy, the most prevalent drug of abuse for the clients at the Los Angeles andChilocco facilities was crack cocaine. Other prevalent drugs, in order, werealcohol, other forms of cocaine, heroin and other opiates, amphetamines, andsome marijuana, LSD, PCP and inhalants.

 

 

Mixtures of drugs were a problemfor a large percentage of this study population. On average, these clients hadused more than one drug in 8 days of the prior month. No primary drug of abusecould even be named by 13% of this study’s clients. About half of thesewere mainly cocaine and heroin addicts, with a wide variety of othercombinations as well.

 

 

Abuse at the two facilities -Chilocco and Los Angeles – varied and these facilities had different drugs ofabuse then the facilities in Europe. For example the American Indian populationat Chilocco was far more likely to abuse alcohol than other drugs and only theChilocco facility dealt with inhalant addicts. Similarly, the primary drug ofabuse in the Italian facilities was heroin rather than cocaine or crack duringthis time period.

 

 

On average, these clients beganusing alcohol at age 15 and drugs at age 15 and a half . They had been usingdrugs, on average, for 15 years.

 

 

PriorAttempts at Drug Rehabilitation

 

 

Prior drug or alcoholrehabilitation attempts were prevalent in this study population.

 

 

22% of the clients had previouslydone an alcohol rehabilitation program and 56% had previously attempted drugrehabilitation. For those who had tried rehab, the average was over threeprevious attempts.

 

 

12% had been in some other form ofrehab in the last 30 days.

 

 

As a general statement, Narcononclients have had a long term addiction to drugs or alcohol and have encounteredmultiple prior failures in treatment.

 

 

This is consistent withNarconon’s reputation for handling the hard core, so-called intractabledrug addict.

 

 

The long term efficacy study wasdesigned to evaluate individuals who came for the first time to do the fullNarconon program. Of the 273 clients monitored during this study, 184 qualifiedfor this group.

 

 

Results

 

 

Drug Tests During Program Delivery

 

 

Urine samples were taken onintake, at two weeks, at one month and at two months into the program for asubset of the full study population. The clients were not warned that sampleswere to be taken.

 

 

88 clients comprise this studygroup. 68 of these 88 clients, or 77%, tested positive for drug metabolites inurine on intake. The portion testing positive for drug metabolites did vary byprimary drug of abuse.

 

 

100% of the clients whose majordrug was crack cocaine had positive urine tests. Other forms of cocaine showed62% of clients with positive tests for drug metabolites. Almost 70% ofamphetamine users had positive urine tests, 85% of opiate users and 50% ofalcoholics.

 

 

As clients progressed through theprogram, there was a steady decrease in both the percentage of clients testingpositive for drugs of abuse and the level of drug found in urine. Testing inthis case was occurring during the withdrawal and detoxification treatmentperiods. Minute but detectable levels of drug metabolites were found in asignificant proportion of these clients for several weeks.

 

 

On intake, 77% of clients testedpositive for drug metabolites. By two weeks, 35% tested positive for drugs ofabuse, though the majority of tests were in the low range.

 

 

At one month 15% still testedpositive for drug metabolites. The levels of drugs found at this time werequite low, not indicative of recent drug use.

 

 

At two months, slightly higherlevels of drug metabolites were found in four clients while two demonstratedlow levels of metabolites. Two of those with the higher levels were clients whostaff had suspected of drinking alcohol and they did test positive.

 

 

For most follow-up samples, thelevel of drug metabolites was less than 1/20th of that found at intake.Although this does not preclude continuing drug use, the low levels suggestthat what we are seeing is ongoing elimination of drug metabolites in most ofthese clients, particularly given the fact that they were on the detoxificationprogram at the time.

 

 

This portion of the overall studydemonstrates that several weeks may be required for elimination of drugmetabolites in some clients. Detectable levels of drugs continue to beeliminated for some weeks in at least a third of the Narconon clients tested.

 

 

MonitoringProgram Delivery

 

 

Daily and weekly reports were madethroughout the study period. These assisted Narconon management to isolatespecific problem areas in delivery and correct or improve the quality of theprogram.

 

 

Among the improvements implementedduring this study were:

 

  1. Specific drills to help the Narconon client gain control over his addiction.

  • Staff training enhancements in the area of detecting clients not qualified for the Narconon program.

  • Increased follow-up contact with graduates to help them stay off drugs and apply what they gained from Narconon to their everyday lives.

 

Weekly then monthly calls fromstaff helped clients through minor difficulties before they turned into majorones.

 

 

Measures of Efficacy

 

 

Program Retention

 

 

An important factor in judging thesuccess of any program is whether or not it can keep its clients. Retention canrefer to both the number of days at a facility and the amount of workcompleted. The most important point as regards retention is whether the clientcompleted the program.

 

 

Of the 273 clients whoparticipated in this study, 66% completed the Narconon program. Similarly, ofthe 184 clients doing the full program for the first time, 67% completed theirNarconon programs.

 

 

Within this population, programcompletion did vary by drug of abuse. Of the 184 doing the full program for thefirst time, crack cocaine users had the poorest rate of program completion(60%) while users of other forms of cocaine had the highest completion rate.

 

 

Reduction in Criminal Behavior(initial findings)

 

 

There are 123 graduates of thefull program in this study population. So far, 48 of these have beeninterviewed two years after program completion.

 

 

For the 48 graduates who have beeninterviewed, results indicate a marked improvement in criminal behavior.

 

  • The number of days participating in illegal activities for profit was, on average, 2.8 of the last 30 days before the Narconon program and 0.4 after This is a direct comparison of the behavior for these clients before the program (not the whole group) to their behavior after program completion. This change represents an 86% improvement in reported criminal activity.

  • The length of the last incarceration was 3.6 months (108 days) for this group prior to Narconon. The average for this follow-up group was less than one day after the program. (Over 99% improvement)

  • Finally, the average for days incarcerated in the last 30 was 1.9 prior to Narconon and less than 0.05 after the program. (A 97% improvement)

 

Conclusion

 

 

The Narconon program is designedto assist the hard-core drug addiction. The program deals with individualshaving a variety of addictions. Most clients have a long term addiction withmultiple prior attempts at rehabilitation.

 

 

Drugs are gradually eliminatedover the first several weeks of the Narconon program. This is concurrent withparticipation by the clients in the detoxification component of the program.

 

 

Approximately two-thirds of theclients who start the program do complete it. Preliminary results indicate theprogram graduates demonstrate marked improvements in their criminal behavior.Interviews also indicate significant improvements in their use of drugs.

 

 

The long term evaluation of thisprogram is ongoing. Initial results as reported herein give reason for optimismregarding the effectiveness of this approach in recovering the drug abuser andstably improving his behavior and ability to live within the mores of civilizedsociety.

 

44 8
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Results of the Narconon

®

Program: An Overview of Findings

December, 1994
Prepared by Shelley L. Beckmann, Ph.D.

®

Program: KeyFindings

4) Parolees from the Delaware Correctional Center were tracked. 70% ofthe Narconon program clients had no arrest during the follow up period,compared to 36% of the control population.

 

ResidentialPrograms:

 

 

Narconon programs have beendelivering services to non-incarcerated populations since 1972.

 

 

1) In surveys of graduates fromfacilities located in Connecticut, Boston and West Berlin, employment wasalmost doubled, arrests were greatly reduced, and the vast majority (as much as90%) reported that they were no longer using drugs.

 

 

2) In a study conducted in Spain,over 75% of graduates remained free of drugs. Whereas almost 90% had beenactively involved with crime before the Narconon program, none were involvedwith crime afterwards.

 

 

The Narconon program is effective, both in reducing drug abuse and inimproving the behavior of clients.

 

 

1.Introduction:

 

 

The Narconon organization is apublic benefit, non-profit, 501(c)(3) corporation that is committed to theelimination of substance abuse. Founded in 1966, Narconon centers have supplieddrug rehabilitation treatment and education/prevention services for 28 years.The Narconon approach is based on techniques developed by author andphilosopher L. Ron Hubbard.

 

 

Each component of the Narcononprogram is designed to increase the abilities of the client. The initialprogram included courses and drills designed to increase the client’scommunication skills, study skills and orientation to the environment. Over theyears the program has expanded to address additional needs of the substanceabuser. The Narconon program now includes drug-free withdrawal, detoxification,and specific courses designed to increase the client’s communication skills,study skills, orientation to the environment, understanding of moralprinciples, and preparation for work.

 

 

The Narconon program was foundedin Arizona State Prison and initially expanded predominately to other prisonfacilities. In 1972, Narconon centers began delivering services to the publicat its first residential facility in Los Angeles. There are currently 37Narconon facilities worldwide. The majority of these facilities provide drugrehabilitation services to the public in a residential setting.

 

 

2. Results of the Narconon®

Program in the PrisonSetting:

 

 

Several evaluations of theNarconon program have been conducted. Evaluations of Narconon programs beingdelivered to incarcerated populations have focused on objective measures ofbehavior, including the involvement of clients with the criminal justice systemduring and after parole.

 

 

®

ProgramGraduates:

 

 

Simple tabulations of the behaviorof parolees were done in several institutions in the 1970’s:

 

 

A) The California Dept. ofCorrections reported on 19 inmates who had participated in the Narconon programwhile in prison. 17 had been paroled. 12 of these were reported as clean (70%).Of the five remaining, 2 were not found, 2 had been arrested and one wassuspended due to cocaine use.

 

 

B) In a study conducted in Spain,over 75% of graduates remained free of drugs. Whereas almost 90% had beenactively involved with crime before doing the Narconon program, none wereinvolved with crime afterwards.

 

 

C) The California Institute forWomen reported on 25 Narconon clients. 23 had been paroled. 18 of these wereclean (78%). Of the remaining, 3 were parolees at large and 2 had beenarrested.

 

 

D) The Arizona CorrectionalAuthority reported on 76 Narconon clients who had been released from prison. 32were found. 24 of these were clean (75%).

 

 

E) The Narconon organization’sExecutive Director compiled a report on Narconon clients at the Riker’s IslandInstitute for Men in New York. Of the 81 clients who had started the voluntarycourse, 43 had completed the initial program. 21 of these had been paroled and17 were contacted. 14 of these were clean (82% of those found, 67% of totalparolees).

 

 

Overall, around 73% of theNarconon clients released from prison remained clean while on parole in thesefollow up surveys.

 

Evaluations of the Narconon

TABLE I
Study of NarcononProgram Clients at the Youth Training School in California

 

 

(Pre Narconon program)

 

(Post Narconon program)

 

Narconon ProgramClients

2.6

 

1.4

 

Narconon ProgramClients

C-

 

B

 

 

Minnesota Reformatory:Narconon program clients at theState Reformatory for Men in Minnesota were evaluated by Posthumos and Snowdenin 1978. The authors chose to evaluate the change in behavior of Narcononclients with time, considering the pre-treatment behavior pattern as thecontrol for this population. These authors were also interested in monitoringobjective measures of behavior. The measures available, which the institutemonitored as part of its standard operation, included:

 

 

(1) Institutional rule infractionsthat the inmates were found guilty of,
(2) Days of lost privileges,and
(3) Days of segregation.

 

 

The number of infractions weretabulated for the 6 months prior to treatment, the time during treatment andthe 6 months after treatment with the Narconon program. These results arereported as the number of infractions per 100 inmates per 30 dayperiod.

 

 

There was a marked reduction inall measures during treatment with the Narconon program (Table II). Duringtreatment, guilty findings were reduced by 38%, days of lost privileges werereduced by 35%, and days of segregation were reduced by 53%.

 

 

During follow-up there was also animprovement in these measures, though less than that observed while on theprogram. Guilty findings were reduced by 40%, days of lost privileges by 15%and days of segregation by 28%. The decrease in guilty findings wasstatistically significant (p<0.01) during both treatment and followup.

 

TABLE II
Results of the Narconon®

Program in Minnesota
Compiled byResearchers at the State Reformatory for Men

 

 

Pre (6 mo.)

Post (6 mo.)

48 29** 274 232 552 395

**Statistically significant improvement (p <0.01)

 

For comparison, a tabulation of10% of the prison population, randomly selected, was also done. Measures weretabulated for an initial 3 months and compared to a later 3 month period. Incontrast to the findings for Narconon program clients. each of these measuresincreased with time in the average prison population. The number of guiltyfindings increased by 77%, the days of lost privileges by 169% and the days ofsegregation by 26%. The Narconon program was effective in reversing thisnegative trend.

 

There was a difference between theNarconon program participants and the general prison population. The Narcononprogram attracted more property offenders than personal offenders. Whereas theprison population included 58% personal and 42% property offenders, theNarconon program clientele included 33% personal and 58% property offenders.The Narconon program was especially effective at reducing the above negativemeasures in property offenders while they were on the program. Long term,however, both property and personal offenders benefited approximatelyequally.

 

 

This study also compared theresults of the program in its first and second 6 months of operation. Theresults improved in the second 6 months as the treatment staff became morefamiliar with the prison population.

 

 

The Narconon program delivered inthe Delaware Correctional Center was evaluated in 1975. The Narconon programclients were, on average, more violent and were serving a longer term than theaverage for the population. The mean sentence was 5 years for Narconon clientsversus less than one year for the total population. 58% of Narconon clientswere incarcerated for a major crime whereas 23% of the total population wereincarcerated for a major crime.

 

 

Narconon

®

Program Graduates ArrestRate:

 

 

The arrest rates for Narcononprogram graduates following release were compared to the rates for a randomlyselected group of parolees. The Narconon program group was composed of allgraduates of the communication course who had been paroled. Of the 86 Narcononprogram parolees, 4 were not found and 2 were dead. Therefore the treatedpopulation consisted of 80 clients.

 

 

The control group was composed ofthe first 100 parolees released following the mean date for release of theNarconon program clients. Two were excluded as they had done part of theNarconon program and 11 were not found. The control group comprised 87individuals.

 

Figure 1: Deleware Parolees notarrested after release.

 

 

70% of the Narconon programclients had no arrest during the follow up period, compared to 36% of thecontrol population. (Figure 1)

 

 

Further, the amount of trainingthe Narconon program clients had completed was positively correlated withsuccessful rehabilitation. 84% of those clients who had done one or morecourses beyond the communications course had no further arrest compared to 62%for those who had completed only the communications course. (Figure1)

 

 

These findings support the conceptthat the Narconon program is effective in bringing about positive behavioralchanges in the incarcerated population.

 

 

3. Evaluations of Narconon

®

Program,Delivered to Public Populations

 

 

Drug

 

Use

 

Arrests

 

 

Location

Group

Number

Before

 

After

 

Before

 

After

 

Clients

10

 

10

 

8

 

3

 

Clients

20

 

12

 

20

 

19

 

7

 

Drug

 

Use

 

Employed

 

Location

Group

Number

Before

 

After

 

Before

 

After

 

Clients

11

 

3

 

11

 

11

 

4

 

 

The Connecticut survey was doneshortly after program completion, the West Berlin study 7 months aftergraduation and the Boston study shortly after program completion.

 

 

In each of these surveys, themajority of the Narconon program graduates were no longer using drugs. Wheremonitored, their involvement with the criminal justice system had lessened andtheir employment improved. None earned money from crime after.

 

 

The Narconon program appearsbeneficial in both reducing drug abuse and reducing involvement withcrime.

 

 

TherapeuticEvaluation:

 

 

These results align with anindependent study of the Narconon facilities done in Spain in 1985. In thisstudy, an independent sociology group called Teenicos Asociados deInvestigacion y Marketing (TAIM) evaluated the Narconon program. TAIM had alsodone studies on drug issues for the Ministry of Health, the Social ServicesDepartment of the Town Hall of Madrid, and the National Institute of SocialServices of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of Spain.

 

The Spanish study showed that 78.4percent of the people who completed the Narconon program remained off drugs.Overall, 69.2 percent of the people contacted (including those who had notgraduated) were still off drugs.

 

TAIM Study: Drug Use and Crime ofClients

Figure 2
Figure 2: TAIM Study – Change inDrug Use and Involvement with Crime after Graduation.

 

Regarding relationships with theirfamilies, 67.6 percent of Narconon program graduates said that their familysituation was now much better, 29.7 percent said that it had changed for thebetter and only 2.7 percent said that it was the same. No one stated that ithad changed for the worse.

 

 

Evaluation of RecentNarconon

®

ProgramGraduates.:

 

 

Narconon program clients generallytake from three to five months to complete the program, though some takesignificantly longer and a few have completed the program in two months. Eachstep is designed to address an area that virtually all substance abusers needto improve. The order of components is carefully laid out to utilize priortools and prepare the student for the next step. The ideal situation is thatevery Narconon program client completes the full program.

 

Narconon International: ClientsTreated/Program Graduates

 

ClientsTreated/Program Graduates

Figure 3: Portion ofclients completing the program. Figure shows the total number of clients forthe years 1998 through 1992 along with the total number graduating from theprogram in these years.

 

The percentage of program completions is therefore an importantmeasure of the success of this program. The number of clients completing theprogram internationally in 1990 was 789 (39% of starts), in 1991 was 1,019 (51%of starts) and in 1992 was 1,084 (56% of starts). (see Figure 3)

 

44 8
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The Precipitation of Cocaine Metabolites in Urine of Addicts Undergoing Sauna Bath Treatment

Megan Shields, M.D.
Shelley Research Center for Dependency Disorders and Chronic Pain, West Covina, California

Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine metabolites may accumulate inthe body and that several days to weeks may be required for their elimination.Treatment outcome may be enhanced by methods which accelerate the safe andrapid elimination of drug metabolites. This preliminary study was conducted todetermine if a detoxification program utilizing sauna baths as one componentmay precipitate the presence of cocaine metabolites in urine and sweat.Subjects were Caucasian with ages ranging from 36 to 40 years, and all metDSM-llI-R criteria for cocaine dependence and ingested cocaine by the smokingroute.

 

Use ranged from 8 months to 18 years, and subjects reported cocaineuse on over 75% of days in the month just prior to treatment. Three subjectsreported last use of cocaine within 48 hours of admission, and one subjectreported last use 25 days prior to program entry. Between the fifth andeleventh day of residential treatment and continuing daily for up to fiveweeks, subjects had multiple sauna baths each day. Urine and sweat samples werecollected from subjects every two to three days during this period and testedfor cocaine metabolites. Analysis was by polarization fluorescent immunoassaywhich has a 95% sensitivity of 30 ng/ml.

 

Three of the four subjects showed a measurable increase in sweat orurine cocaine metabolite concentrations when sauna baths were initiated. Twosubjects showed undetectable levels of metabolites in urine prior to saunabaths and then demonstrated detectable levels after saunas were initiated.Metabolites were detectable in sweat and urine for up to five weeks followingthe start of sauna treatment. This study suggests sauna baths and other methodsto increase sweating and metabolism may precipitate the appearance of cocainemetabolites in sweat and urine and, thereby, accelerate their elimination fromthe body.

 

44 8
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Reduction of Drug Residues: Applications in Drug Rehabilitation

Megan Shields, M.D.
Shelley Beckmann, Ph.D.
and R. Michael Wisner
Presented at the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association

 

(e) A regular dietincluding plenty of fresh vegetables.

 

 

(f) A properly orderedpersonal schedule which provides the person with the normally required amountof sleep.

 

 

Clients are on thisprogram up to 5 hours per day, every day, until program completion. Dailyaerobic exercise is followed by frequent periods in a low-heat (60-80 C) sauna.Niacin is administered immediately prior to the exercise and sauna to assistwith the mobilization and elimination process. The program is pursuedindividually until a stable clinical improvement is achieved, generally from 4to 28 days.

 

 

Symptom

 

All Users

 

Current Users

 

Past Users

 

 

 

 

 

Fatigue

 

2.5

 

2.7

 

2.3

 

Stress Intolerance

 

2.3

 

2.7

 

2.2

 

Decreased Mental Acuity

 

2.3

 

2.5

 

2.1

 

Irritability

 

2.2

 

2.8

 

1.8

 

Reduced Attention Span

 

2.1

 

2.6

 

2.0

 

Impaired Memory

 

2.1

 

2.3

 

1.9

 

Depression

 

2.0

 

2.7

 

1.5

 

Nervousness

 

1.8

 

2.4

 

1.4

 

Lethargy

 

1.7

 

1.9

 

1.2

 

Recreational Drug Use

 

1.7

 

3.5

 

0.6

 

Sleepiness

 

1.6

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

Emotional Instability

 

1.6

 

2.1

 

0.9

 

Alcohol Use

 

1.6

 

2.7

 

0.9

 

Coffee Use

 

1.6

 

1.5

 

1.5

 

Headaches

 

1.5

 

1.7

 

1.4

 

Confusion

 

1.5

 

1.8

 

1.0

 

Lumbalgia

 

1.5

 

1.4

 

1.4

 

Tobacco Use

 

1.4

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

Muscle Aches and Pains

 

1.3

 

1.4

 

1.0

 

Sleeplessness

 

1.2

 

2.0

 

0.8

 

 

The symptom profile forcurrent users is compared to the profile for past users in Figure 1. Though theseverity is higher for symptoms in current users, the complaints overlapremarkably in the two groups. This strongly supports the concept thatpersistent symptoms in the general population are related to past druguse.

 

Severity of Symptoms Before Detox

Following treatment, the self-reported symptom severity improved markedly(Figure 2). The reduction in symptom severity was statistically significant for80 of the 87 symptoms, and highly significant for 74 of them, including each ofthe chief complaints of this population.

 

Symptom Severity in Drug Users
 

Use of thisdetoxification program at Narconon is based on the premise that drug residuesremain in body tissues long after active use has ceased and that these residuescontribute to both persistent symptoms and the craving fordrugs.

 

This study demonstratesthat the detoxification program developed by Hubbard is effective inalleviating many of the symptomatic complaints reported by drugusers.

 

 

Cocaine, amphetamineand benzodiazepine metabolites are found in both the urine and the sweat ofindividuals who have used these drugs as they undergo detoxificationtreatment.

 

 

Individuals reportmarked reductions in drug craving following this program.

 

 

Considering the highlevel of recidivism in drug users, the potential effects of drug residues onrecidivism and the alleviation of these effects through detoxification, itbecomes evident that detoxification treatment has broad application in the drugrehabilitation field.

 

44 8
research_review scientific literature on the success of the Narconon®detoxification program by cocaine addiction .com.

A Review of Scientific Literature Supporting the Detoxification Method Developed by L. Ron Hubbard.

Compiled August, 1991 by the Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education.

Table ofContents

 

II. Reduction of BioaccumulatedCompounds

 

 

III. The Detoxification ProgramDeveloped by L. Ron Hubbard

 

 

A. Exercise
B. Sauna
C. Supplements

 

 

Niacin
Polyunsaturated Oils
Vitamin Supplementation

 

 

D. Sufficient liquids to offset the loss of body fluids through sweating
E. Regular diet supplemented with plenty of fresh vegetables
F. A properly ordered personal schedule which provides the person with the normally required amount of sleep

 

 

IV. Studies Regarding theDetoxification Program

 

 

A. Safety of the Program
B. Results of Detoxification

 

 

V. Summary

 

 

References

 

 

I. Contaminationwith Synthetic Chemicals

 

 

Human exposure to toxic chemicalshas dramatically increased in the last century. Millions of compounds have beenformulated and some 50,000 are now in commercial use. The environmentalpersistence of many of these compounds is cause for concern, In addition, manyof these synthetic compounds accumulate in biological organisms(bioaccumulation), storing in bone, fat, or another compartment of thebody.

 

 

Hundreds of these compounds arefound in U.S. citizens, with many present in each of us (1). In addition tocommercial compounds, many drugs — both pharmaceutical and so-calledrecreational — can remain in the body for an extended time. Drugs such as LSD(2, 3), PCP (4), cocaine (5), marijuana (6) and diazepam (7) are found in fat.These drugs can be retained for extended periods, especially under conditionsof chronic use (5,8-11).

 

 

Adverse health effects have beenshown for some of these compounds. Health effects from most compounds have not,however, been studied in detail. Further, the health effects from combinationsof chemicals are unknown. It is clearly preferable to have low levels offoreign compounds rather than high.

 

 

II. Reduction ofBioaccumulated Compounds

 

 

While we still do not fullyunderstand the bio-active mechanisms or the kinetics of many toxic substances,physicians have known for centuries that health problems can ensue as a resultof accumulations of xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) and have looked for ways tosafely and effectively reduce body burdens.

 

 

Ramazzini, in his 1713 work,

 

Diseases

 

 

of

 

 

Workers

 

, notes that writers of works onpoisons at that time advise, in general, remedies that have the power ofsetting the spirits and blood mass in motion and of provoking sweat (12), arecommendation which aligns well with current knowledge of the kinetics andmetabolism of foreign compounds.

 

 

Approaches to handlingbioaccumulation of harmful chemicals depend on increasing the rate of removalof these compounds. This is accomplished by either altering the compound to anon-toxic form or by enhancing the rate of elimination.

 

 

This philosophy has been appliedin many ways. In acute poisoning, purging is a key means of removing the toxiccompound before adverse effects arise. For this reason, a strong purgative isincluded in the highly toxic pesticide, paraquat.

 

 

Ingestion of compounds known tobind to the contaminating compound has been used in some cases. This increasesthe rate of removal of the toxic compound because it cannot be reabsorbed as itpasses through the intestine. In this manner, cholestyramine was successfullyused to reduce levels of Kepone (13), and Prussian blue was used to reducelevels of radioactive Cesium (14).

 

 

A fasting technique has been usedto enhance the mobilization of fat-stored compounds. This approach resulted inimproved symptoms in 16 PCB-exposed Taiwanese patients (15), although thelevels of PCBs in the blood of these patients increased.

 

 

Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)has been used for many years in the treatment of lead toxicity. EDTA binds tolead and other compounds in the blood, the resultant complex then beingeliminated. (16,17)

 

 

Reduction of fat-stored chemicalsmust be aimed at mobilizing chemicals from fat stores, distributing themobilized chemical to routes of elimination, and increasing the rate at whichthese routes are utilized. This is the design behind the detoxificationprocedure developed by Hubbard.

 

 

III. TheDetoxification Program Developed by L. Ron Hubbard

 

 

This program was designed tomobilize and enhance the elimination of fat-stored xenobiotics. Hubbard’sprogram was specifically developed to reduce levels of drug residues but hasproven to be applicable to the reduction of other fat-storedcompounds.

 

 

The program has gained widespreadsupport due to its effectiveness and the fact that it is well supported by themedical literature. Each component of the program is in alignment with currentresearch on the mobilization of fat stores and the facilitation of toxinelimination. The components of this program are:

 

 

A.Exercise:

 

 

Fat is stored throughout the body,with significant deposits not only in adipose tissue but in cellular reserves,membranes, etc. Exercise is aimed at both promoting deep circulation in thetissues and enhancing the turnover of fats.

 

 

Numerous studies have shown thatexercise promotes the circulation of blood to tissues (18) and also promotesmobilization of lipid from storage depots

 

 

(19-24). Mobilization of fatstores is accompanied by mobilization of the toxins stored in the fatty tissue(25-27).

 

 

B.Sauna:

 

 

Mobilization of chemicals is notdesirable if routes of elimination are not enhanced. Chemicals are excretedthrough many routes including feces, urine, sweat, sebum, and lungvapor.

 

 

The purposes of the sauna aspectof this program are two-fold. Heat stress is a means of increasing circulation(28) and of enhancing the elimination of compounds through both sweat andsebum. It is documented that methadone (29), amphetamines (30),methamphetamines and morphine (31), copper (32), mercury (33), additionalmetals (34) and other compounds appear in human sweat. Enhancement of thiselimination route is a key purpose of the sauna aspect of thisprogram.

 

 

In addition to an increase insweat production, increased body temperature results in heightened productionof sebum, the material produced by the skin’s sebaceous glands (35). Inpatients exhibiting chloracne, a specific skin disorder caused by chemicalexposure, the causative compounds may be detected both in adipose tissue and insebum of the skin (36).

 

 

Though not a major route ofelimination for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PCBs may be found in sebum ofexposed individuals (37). Both the concentration of PCBs and the quantity ofsebum produced have been shown to increase during the detoxification programdeveloped by Hubbard (38).

 

 

C.Supplements:

 

 

Niacin

 

 

Effects of specific vitamins areutilized as well. Niacin has a long-term effect of reducing the mobilization offatty acids (39). However, the initial reduction in mobilized fatty acidsfollowing a single dose is followed by a transitory increase in free fatty acidmobilization (40,41).

 

 

Mobilization of free fatty acidsby other mechanisms has been shown to result in concurrent mobilization of thefat-stored chemicals (26,27). This also appears to occur during thisdetoxification program. The increased turnover of fat results in mobilizationof fat-stored chemicals and the opportunity to eliminate them from thebody.

 

 

PolyunsaturatedOils

 

 

One means of excretion ofchemicals is through the bile. However, such bile excretion results in elevatedlevels of chemicals in the intestine, providing an opportunity for reabsorptionof these compounds (42,43).

 

 

It has been known for many yearsthat addition of unsaturated oils to the diet can increase the excretion rateof certain compounds. This is due either to blocking the reabsorption of thechemical or to altering the rate at which the compound is excreted(45).

 

 

Supplementation with unsaturatedfats also affects the content of the stored adipose tissue (45). Apparently, asthe stored fats are mobilized and re-stored, the dietary supplements replacesome of the mobilized fats so that an exchange is effected.

 

 

VitaminSupplementation

 

 

Vitamin and mineralsupplementation is included for several reasons. Replacement of vitamins andminerals lost through sweating is one reason. Correction of any deficiencies isnecessary as well.

 

 

Extensive sweating is a componentof this program. As significant levels of vitamins and minerals appear insweat, their loss through sweating could create deficiencies were they notreplaced.

 

 

Deficiencies may already bepresent. Specific vitamin, mineral and amino acid deficiencies are knownconsequences of alcohol and drug abuse, due either to poor nutrition or to theaction of the drugs themselves (46-48). PCB poisoning in animals has been shownto result in a significant decrease of vitamin A in the liver and serum(49,50).

 

 

Further, research in animals hasdemonstrated that vitamin deficiencies retard the metabolism of drugs (51).Changes in nutrient levels, with consequent adverse effects on metabolism, mayoccur with other chemicals as well.

 

 

Supplementation with vitamins isanticipated to assist the individual in several ways. Such supplementation willcertainly assist in correction of nutritional deficiencies. It might also beexpected to aid in the metabolism of chemicals.

 

 

D. Sufficientliquids to offset the loss of body fluids throughsweating:

 

This is a logical necessityduring any extended period of sweating. In addition to liquid supplementation,sodium, potassium, calcium-magnesium solution and cell salts are taken on anindividual basis. Patients undergoing this detoxification program are monitoredto ensure signs of heat exhaustion or salt depletion do not appear.

 

 

E. Regular dietsupplemented with plenty of fresh vegetables:

 

 

This program is not a dietaryprogram. The only change in diet required by patients on this program is thatthey eat plenty of fresh vegetables. This ensures that bowel movements remainregular.

 

 

F. A properlyordered personal schedule which provides the person with the normally requiredamount of sleep:

 

 

The detoxification program isintensive. The mobilization and elimination of stored chemicals can put astress on the individual’s body. Therefore, it is imperative that individualsensure that they are well-rested during the program.

 

 

IV. StudiesRegarding the Detoxification Program Developed by L. RonHubbard

 

 

A. Safety of theProgram

 

 

An initial study of 103individuals demonstrated the safety of this program. Medical complicationsassociated with the program occurred in less than 3% of the individuals andwere minor in nature. There was one case of pneumonia, one of ear infection,and one case of diarrhea during the approximately 3 weeks of program delivery.Reductions in blood pressure and cholesterol were benefits of the program. Theprogram also resulted in improvements in psychological test scores.(52)

 

 

This program is designed tomobilize and eliminate fat-stored chemicals. During any such program in whichxenobiotics are deliberately mobilized from fat stores, it is important thatelimination keep pace with this mobilization process. Otherwise it is possiblethat mobilization will result in heightened blood concentrations of themobilized compounds.

 

 

Blood levels of chemicals weremonitored in a study of electrical workers conducted by Schnare & Robinson(53). They showed that blood levels of both PCBs and pesticides were fairlyconsistent over the course of treatment. Thus, elimination of compoundsappeared to keep pace with their mobilization during this study.

 

 

B. Results ofDetoxification

 

 

The detoxification methoddeveloped by Hubbard has been shown to reduce levels of several fat-storedchemicals. Studies of this method have focused on individuals who haveaccumulated fat-soluble compounds through either occupational or environmentalexposure.

 

 

In 1983, Roehm reported reductionsin DDE and PCBs and clearing of symptoms in a Vietnam vet with a range ofsymptoms (54).

 

 

A 1984 study demonstratedstatistically significant reductions of from 10.1 to 65.9 percent for sixteenfat-stored compounds. The compounds tested included polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and chlorinated pesticides. The studypopulation had been specifically exposed to PBBs approximately 10 years priorto treatment. Reductions in

 

 

PBBs were 58.7 percent (p<0.O5)when treated with Hubbard’s method. (55) According to independent evaluation,the chemical levels for PBBs had not reduced during the five years prior totreatment (56).

 

 

In a controlled study, electricalworkers exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB), PCBs and other compounds, weretreated with the Hubbard method. Statistically significant reductions of 30%for HCB and 16% for PCBs were observed. These reductions were stable atfollow-up observations 3 months subsequent to treatment (53).

 

 

Further documentation of PCBreduction was reported in the case of a female factory worker from Yugoslavia.Her excessive PCB levels (102 mg/Kg in adipose and 512 ug/L in serumapproximately 50 times higher than the general population) were reduced by 63%in adipose and 49% in serum following treatment. In addition, a spontaneousbreast discharge containing PCBs ceased during treatment. This woman’s symptomsalso improved over the course of treatment. (38)

 

 

Improvements in this woman led toa controlled study of a group of male co-workers. Again, reductions in PCBlevels were observed and improvements in symptoms noted for the group treatedwith the method developed by Hubbard . (57,58)

 

 

As the number of toxic chemicalsin the workplace increases, it is sometimes difficult to identify the exactnature of a toxicant. Such was the case for a woman exposed to both theresidues trapped in filters from the exhaust stacks of an oil-fired electricalgenerator and the contaminated water used to clean these filters. She becameill following 6 months of such exposure and was unable to work. Duringtreatment with Hubbard’s method a black substance began oozing from her pores.This abated late in treatment. Both her objective and subjective complaintswere reduced following treatment and she was able to return to work.(59)

 

 

Firefighters are often exposed totoxic compounds in the course of their work. Such was the case for a group offirefighters responding to a fire involving transformers filled with PCBs.Several of these men became ill following the fire.

 

 

Neurophysiological andneuro-psychological tests were conducted on 14 of these firefighters 6 monthsafter the fire. This battery of 22 tests demonstrated that the firefighters whohad been involved with the fire were significantly impaired in both memory andcognitive functions when compared to coworkers from the same department who hadnot participated in fighting this fire. (Scores for 13 of the 22 tests weresignificantly worse in the exposed firefighters.)

 

 

Following treatment with thedetoxification method developed by Hubbard, significant improvements in 6 ofthe 13 tests originally showing impairment were noted. (60)

 

 

These firefighters were alsotested for peripheral nerve damage. Five of the seventeen firefighters testedshowed significant peripheral neuropathy. All showed improvement followingtreatment with Hubbard’s method, with two of the five returning to normalrange. (61)

 

 

Many people have experiencedadverse health effects after exposure to compounds whose identity is unknown.The detoxification program has been shown effective in alleviating symptoms insuch patients. In one study, the selected patient population reported symptomprofiles prior to treatment that were in alignment with chemically exposedindividuals reported by other authors (not statistically different). Followingtreatment, their symptom profiles had improved significantly and were now notsignificantly different from a healthy population. (62)

 

 

V.Summary

 

 

This body of peer-reviewedliterature substantiates the effectiveness of Hubbard’s program in reducinglevels of foreign compounds stored in fat and in improving the symptom profilesof chemically exposed individuals. Health benefits of this program are notlimited to symptomatic improvements. In the case of documented impairments inneurological function, these impairments were shown by two independentapproaches to be significantly improved by detoxification treatment.

 

 

This program has proven to be asafe and effective addition to clinical practice. As the quantity and varietyof chemicals employed in our society increase, it can be expected that thisprogram will become increasingly relevant.

 

 

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Arch EnvHealth

 

44:345-350

 

 

61. Shields M, Beckmann SL andCassidy-Brinn G (1989) Improvement In perception of transcutaneous nervestimulation following detoxification In firefighters exposed to PCBs, PCDDs andPCDFs.

 

Clinical Ecology

 

6:47-50

 

 

62. Root DE. Katzin OB. Schnare DW(1985) Diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting subclinical signs andsymptoms of exposure to chemicals which bioaccumulate in human tissue. In:

 

Proceedings of the NationalConference on Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Emergencies

, May 14-16

 

44 8
research_summary summaries of papers on the drug detoxification method by NarcononArrowhead & cocaine addiction .com.

Appendix: Summaries of Published Papers Regarding the Detoxification Method Developed by L. Ron Hubbard

Evaluation of a Detoxification Regimen for Fat StoredXenobiotics

 

 

Medical Hypothesis, Vol.9,1982.

 

 

Summary: One hundred and threeindividuals undergoing detoxification with Hubbard’s procedure volunteered toundergo additional physical and psychological tests concomitant with theprogram. Participants had been exposed to recreational (abused) and medicaldrugs, patent medicines, occupational and environmental chemicals. Patientswith high blood pressure had a mean reduction of 30.8 mm systolic, 23.3 mmdiastolic; cholesterol level mean reduction was 19.5 mg/ 100 ml, whiletriglycerides did not change. Completion of the detoxification program alsoresulted in improvements in psychological test scores, with a mean increase inWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ of 6.7 points. Scores on MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory profiles decreased on Scales (4-7)where high scores are associated with amoral and asocial personalities,psychopathic behavior and paranoia. Medical complications resulting fromdetoxification were rare, occurring in less than three percent of thesubjects.

 

 

BodyBurden Reductions of PCBs, PBBs and Chlorinated Pesticide Residues in HumanSubjects

 

 

Ambio, Vol.13, No.5-6,1984.

 

 

Summary: Prior to detoxification,adipose tissue concentrations were determined for seven individualsaccidentally exposed to PBBs. The chemicals targeted for analysis included themajor congeners of PBBs, PCBs and the residues of common chlorinatedinsecticides. Of the 16 organohalides examined, 13 were present in lowerconcentrations following detoxification. Seven of the 3 reductions werestatistically significant; reductions ranged from 3.5 to 47.2 percent, with amean reduction among the 16 chemicals of 21.3 percent (s.d. 17.1 percent). Todetermine whether reductions reflected movement to other body compartments oractual burden reduction, a post-treatment follow-up sample was taken fourmonths later. Follow-up analysis showed a reduction in all 16 chemicalsaveraging 42.4 percent (s.d. 17.1 percent) and ranging from 10.1 to 65.9percent. Ten of the 16 reductions were statistically significant.

 

 

Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients Presenting SubclinicalSigns and Symptoms of Exposure to Chemicals Which Accumulate in HumanTissue

 

 

Proceedings of the NationalConference on Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Emergencies, Cincinnati,Ohio, 1985.

 

 

Summary: A discussion of some ofthe problems in attempting to diagnose and treat low-level body burdens oftoxic chemicals. A review of 120 patients who were prescribed detoxificationtreatment as developed by Hubbard to eliminate fat-stored compounds showedimprovement in 14 of 15 symptoms associated with several types of chemicalexposures.

 

 

Reduction of the Human Body Burdens of Hexachlorobenzene andPolychlorinated Biphenyls

 

 

World Health Organization,International Agency for Research on Cancer, Scientific Publications Series,Volume 77, 1986.

 

 

Summary: Electrical workers pairedby age, sex and potential for polychlorinated biphenyl exposure were dividedinto treatment and control groups. Adipose-tissue concentrations ofhexachlorobenzene (HCB), four other pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenylcongeners were determined pre- and post-treatment, and three monthspost-treatment. At post-treatment, all 16 chemicals were found at lowerconcentrations in the adipose tissues of the treatment group, while 11 werefound in higher concentrations in the control group. Adjusted for re-exposureas represented in the control group, HCB concentrations were reduced by 30percent at post-treatment and 28 percent three months post-treatment. Meanreduction of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners was 61 percent atpost-treatment and 14 percent three months post-treatment. These reductions arestatistically significant (f< 0.001). Enhanced excretion appeared to keeppace with mobilization, as blood-serum levels in the treatment group did notincrease during treatment.

 

 

Excretion of a Lipophilic Toxicant Through the SebaceousGlands: A Case Report

 

 

Journal of Toxicology­­ Cutaneous andOcular Toxicology, Vol. 6, No. 1,1987.

 

 

Summary: A 23-year-old womanworked at a manufacturing facility, hosing the soot and ash accumulated in theexhaust stack and on the filter pads of an oil-fired generator. She performedthis task without protective gear. After six months, she reported feeling illto the plant nurse. One month later, she was removed from the job, and sheremained unable to work for 11 1/2 months because of symptoms relating to toxicchemical exposure. The toxicants were amenable to removal through the sebaceousglands and possibly the gastrointestinal tract by Hubbard’s detoxificationtechnique. This was accompanied by remission of her subjective complaints andshe was authorized to return to work.

 

 

Improvement in Perception of Transcutaneous Nerve StimulationFollowing Detoxification in Firefighters Exposed to PCBs, PCDDs andPCDFs

 

 

Clinical Ecology, Vol. VI,No.2, 1989.

 

 

Summary: Seventeen firefighterswith a history of acute exposure to polychlorinated biphyenyls, dibenzofurans,and dibenzodioxins were evaluated for peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathicevaluation was done using the Neurometer®, a transcutaneous nervestimulation device. Prior to detoxification, five of the 17 had abnormalcurrent perception threshold measurements. Following treatment, all showedimprovement. Most strikingly, the current perception thresholds of two patientsreturned to normal range after detoxification. This finding raises thepossibility that damage heretofore thought to be permanent may in manyinstances be partially reversible.

 

 

Occupational, Environmental and Public Health in Semic: A CaseStudy of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Pollution

 

 

Proceedings of the AnnualMeeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, New Orleans, Louisiana,October, 1989.

 

 

Summary: Eleven workers withreadily observable symptoms of exposure to PCBs and other chemicals were chosenfor detoxification from a group of 24 male volunteers from a factory using PCBsin the manufacture of capacitors. The remaining 13 served as a control group.Detoxification treatment reduced both the body burdens and the symptoms oftreated workers while no such improvements occurred in the control group. Thisstudy, undertaken in cooperation with the University Medical Center ofLjubljana and the Institut fur Toxikologie, University and TechnicalFaculty of Zurich, supports the use of health screening and detoxification forindividuals affected by toxic exposures.

 

 

Human Contamination and Detoxification: Medical Response to anExpanding Global Problem

 

 

Proceedings of the MAB UNESCOTask Force on Human Response to Environmental Stress, Moscow,1989.

 

 

Summary: Individuals with avariety of workplace exposures were unable to work or had reduced workcapacity. Following detoxification, each was able to return to work. Though theresults presented are anecdotal, they confirm previous findings in thepeer-reviewed literature (Schnare et al., 1982; Roehm, 1983; Schnare et al.,1984; Schnare and Robinson, 1985; Tretjak et al., 1989) and demonstrate thatthis approach can be effective in reducing body burdens of toxic compounds andreturning individuals to the workplace.

 

 

Neurobehavioral Dysfunction in Firemen Exposed toPolychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Possible Improvement afterDetoxification,

 

 

Archives of EnvironmentalHealth, Vol.44, No. 6, 1989.

 

 

Summary: Fourteen firemen wereexposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their by-products at the siteof a transformer fire and explosion. Six months after the fire, they underwentneurophysiological and neuropsychological tests. They were re-studied six weeksafter detoxification. A control group of firefighters was selected from firemenwho resided in the same city but were not engaged in the fire in question.Initial testing showed that firemen exposed to PCBs had poorer neurobehavioralfunction than the control group. Significant reversibility of impairment wasnoted after detoxification.

 

 

PCBReduction and Clinical Improvement by Detoxification: An Unexploited Approach?

 

 

Human and ExperimentalToxicology, Vol.9, 1991.

 

 

Summary: A female worker from acapacitor factory, with a history of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) and other lipophilic industrial chemicals, was admitted for treatment atthe University Medical Centre of Ljubljana, Slovenia (then Yugoslavia). Shepresented with severe abdominal complaints, chloracne, liver abnormalities anda bluish-green nipple discharge of approximately 50 ml in quantity. High PCBlevels were noted in adipose tissue (102 mg kg’), serum (512 ug/1′), skinlipids (66.3 mg kg’), and in the nipple discharge (712 ug 1′). Afterdetoxification, PCB levels in adipose tissue were reduced to 37.4 mg kg’ and inserum to 261 ug’, respective reductions of 63 percent and 49 percent. Excretionof intact PCBs in serum, appreciable before treatment, was enhanced by up tofive-fold during detoxification. The nipple discharge ceased early in thedetoxification regimen.

 

 

Xenobiotic Reduction andClinical Improvements in Capacitor Workers: A Feasible Method

 

 

Journal of EnvironmentalScience and Health,

 

 

Vol. A25, No.7,1990.

 

 

Summary: Eleven capacitor workers,occupationally exposed to PCBs and other industrial chemicals, underwentdetoxification. Thirteen co-workers served as controls. Mean PCB levels priorto detoxification were 28.0 mg/kg in adipose and 188.0 ug/L in serum. Followingdetoxification, PCBs were reduced in serum by 42 percent (p<0.05) and inadipose by 30 percent for patients without concurrent disease. Patients withconcurrent disease had a 10 percent reduction in adipose levels, while serumlevels remained unchanged. Both adipose and serum PCB levels increased inmembers of the control group. At a four-month follow up examination, thesedifferences were maintained, though the mean adipose PCB values in all groupswere higher than at post-treatment. All patients reported marked improvement inclinical symptoms post-treatment, with most of these improvements retained atfollow-up. No such improvements were noted in controls.

 

 

Treatment of Pesticide-Exposed Patients with Hubbard’s Methodof Detoxification.

 

 

Presentation at the 120thAnnual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, 1992.

 

 

Summary: A review of the efficacyof detoxification in addressing the complaints of 155 patients who hadexperienced significant exposures to pesticides. Treatment effected reductionsin chemical levels in adipose tissue, and a concomitant decrease in symptomaticcomplaints.

 

 

Neurotoxicity and Toxic Body Burdens: Relationship andTreatment Potentials

 

 

Proceedings of theInternational Conference on Peripheral Nerve Toxicity,1993.

 

 

Summary: Many chemicals haveneurotoxic health effects of long duration, leading to the conclusion thatthese effects are essentially irreversible. This paper proposes that theaccumulation and persistence of neurotoxic chemicals in adipose tissue may playa role in the prolongation of neurotoxic effects. If this were the case, anapproach designed to reduce body burdens of fat-soluble compounds should leadto a similar reduction in neurotoxic effects. Transcutaneous current perceptionthresholds were measured using the Neurometer device in 48 patients exhibitingneurotoxic effects both before and after detoxification. Followingdetoxification, marked improvements were noted in both peripheral neuropathyand self-reported patient profiles.

 

 

Reduction of Drug Residues: Applications in DrugRehabilitation

 

 

Presentation at the 123rdAnnual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, 1995

 

 

Summary: Drug residues and theirlipophilic metabolites are associated with persistent symptoms; theirmobilization into blood correlates with drug cravings. The concentration ofdrug metabolites in both sweat and urine was measured in eight individuals whohad been actively using drugs prior to detoxification. Cocaine, opiate, andbenzodiazepan metabolites were detected by fluorescent immunoassay in bothsweat and urine. Low levels (not indicative of use) continued to be eliminatedfor several weeks. In two cases, drug levels were below detection prior totreatment but became detectable during detoxification. A separate series of 249clients with a history of drug abuse rated the severity of their symptomsbefore and after detoxification. Chief symptomatic complaints prior todetoxification included fatigue, irritability, depression, intolerance ofstress, reduced attention span and decreased mental acuity. (These samesymptoms were dominant in those who had ceased active drug abuse over a yearprior to treatment.) Following detoxification, both past and current usersreported marked improvements in symptoms, with most returning to normalrange.

 

 

Treatment of Children with the Detoxification Method Developedby Hubbard

 

 

Presentation at the 123rdAnnual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, 1995

 

 

Summary: Eighteen children fromten families were referred for detoxification. Their chief complaints includedenvironmental sensitivity, headaches, chronic fatigue, allergies, respiratoryproblems and recurrent infections. In each case, the entire family had becomeill following a known change (e.g., application of pesticides, installation ofimproperly cured carpet) in their environment. The ages of the children rangedfrom neonatal to 15 at the time of exposure, with treatment ages ranging from 4to 21. Treatment resulted in improvements in symptom profiles, with at least 89percent of the children reporting long-term improvements in theirsymptoms.

 

 

Precipitation of Cocaine Metabolites in Sweat and Urine ofAddicts Undergoing Sauna Bath Treatment

 

 

Fifty-Seventh Annual ScientificMeeting, National Institute on Drug Abuse, College on Problems of DrugDependency, 1995

 

 

Summary: Four subjects (threemales and one female) admitted to a residential treatment program were selectedfor study. All met DSM-III-R Criteria for cocaine dependence and ingestedcocaine by smoking. The duration of their use of the drug ranged from eightmonths to 18 years, and they reported cocaine use on over 75 percent of days inthe month just prior to treatment. Three reported last use of cocaine within 48hours of admission; one reported last use 25 days prior to program entry. Urineand sweat samples were collected from subjects every two to three days duringdetoxification and analyzed by fluorescent immunoassay. Cocaine metaboliteswere detectable in both sweat and urine of all subjects. Three of the foursubjects showed a measurable increase in sweat or urine cocaine metaboliteconcentrations at the beginning of detoxification. Two subjects demonstratednegative urine samples prior to detoxification, but demonstrated the presenceof metabolites when detoxification commenced.

 

 

Reduction of the Radioisotope Cs-137 Using the DetoxificationMethod Developed by Hubbard

 

 

Presentation at the 124thAnnual Meeting of the American Public Health Associations,1996.

 

 

Summary: Fourteen children livingin the plume path of the destroyed Chernobyl reactor underwent detoxification.Each was periodically measured using a portable radiation detection systemcapable of measuring the characteristic gamma ray emitted during theradioactive decay of Cs-137. (Five such measures were made over the course ofapproximately four weeks.) Elimination rates were compared to expected rates ofelimination from published studies. Children uniformly eliminated Cs-137 morerapidly than expected, with the exception of two cases in which children wereeating contaminated treats from home. (Rapid elimination of Cs-137 resumed whenthese items were eliminated from their diets.)

 

44 8
sex_drugs sex drug information by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction.com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

<h+1>Sex Drugs -Rohypnol

What is it?

Rohypnol is a sleeping pill marketed by Roche Pharmaceuticals. On the street it is often call roofies, roche, R-2, rib and rope. The drug is a very potent tranquilizer similar to Valium, but much, much stronger.

Rohypnol produces a sedative effect, amnesia, muscle relaxation and a slowing of psychomotor responses.

The drug is often distributed on the street in its bubble packaging which makes it appear legitimate and legal. Rohypnol is reportedly sold for $2.00 to $4.00 per tablet.

Originally, illicit use of Rohypnol was reported in Europe in the late 1970’s. Police sources in Florida and Texas reported first seeing roofies in the United States in the early 1990’s.

<h+1>Rohypnol

Rohypnol, the trade name for flunitrazepam, has been a concern for the last few years because of its abuse as a date rape drug. People may unknowingly be given the drug which, when mixed with alcohol, can incapacitate a victim and prevent them from resisting sexual assault. Also, Rohypnol may be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants.

Rohypnol produces sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and amnesia; it can also produce physical and psychological dependence. In Miami, one of the first sites of Rohypnol abuse, poison control centers report an increase in withdrawal seizures among people addicted to Rohypnol.

Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States and its importation is banned. Illicit use of Rohypnol began in Europe in the 1970s and started appearing in the United States in the early 1990s, where it became known as rophies, roofies, roach, rope, and the date rape drug.

Another very similar drug is now being sold as roofies in Miami, Minnesota, and Texas. This is clonazepam, marketed in the U.S. as Klonopin and in Mexico as Rivotril. It is sometimes abused to enhance the effects of heroin and other opiates. Based on emergency room admission information, Boston, San Francisco, Phoenix, and Seattle appear to have the highest use rates of clonazepam.

What are the Effects?

The Rohypnol effects begin approximately 20-30 minutes after taking the drug and peak within two hours. Depending on the dosage, the effects usually last up to 8 hours.

 

* Decreased blood pressure

 

* Loss of memory

 

* Tiredness

 

* Problems with vision

 

* Dizziness and confusion

 

* Nervousness

 

* Aggressive behavior

 

A.K.A Date Rape Drug

One of the most common abuse patterns is to use Rohypnol as a rape drug. Rohypnol is known as a rape drug because perpetrators reportedly slip it into victim’s drinks causing them to black out. Rohypnol takes away a victim’s normal inhibitions, leaving the victim helpless and blocking the memory of a rape or assault.

Only 10 minutes after ingesting Rohypnol, a person may feel dizzy, disoriented, too hot or cold and nauseated. They may also have a difficult time speaking and eventually, the victim will pass out. The person will then have no recollection of the events that occurred.

Mixing roofies with alcohol can be more dangerous and may cause respiratory depression, aspiration and possibly death.

GHB(Gamma-Hydroxybutyerate)

 

<h+1>What is it?

Originally developed as an anesthetic, GHB is a naturally occurring 4-carbon molecule sold in powdered, liquid or capsule form. On the street it can be known as: G, Liquid X, Liquid E, Scoop, Soap, Gook, Grievous Bodily Harm, Georgia Home Boy, Natural Sleep-500, Easy Lay or Gamma 10. It usually is tasteless, but may be recognized at times by a salty taste.

GHB was formerly sold by health-food stores and gyms as a sleep aid, anabolic agent, fat burner, enhancer of muscle definition and natural psychedelic. GHB was first synthesized in 1960 by a French researcher. It has been used in Europe as a general anesthetic, a treatment for insomnia and narcolepsy, an aid to childbirth and a treatment for alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

In the last few years it has been gaining popularity as a recreational drug offering an alcohol-like, hangover free high with possible prosexual effects (disinhibition often occurs and inhibitions are suppressed).

<h+1>GHB

Since 1990, GHB (gamma- hydroxybutyrate) has been abused in the U.S. for euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (body building) effects. As with Rohypnol and clonazepam, GHB has been associated with sexual assault in cities throughout the country.

Reports from Detroit indicate liquid GHB is being used in nightclubs for effects similar to those of Rohypnol. It is also common in the club scene in Phoenix, Honolulu, and Texas, where it is known as liquid ecstacy, somatomax, scoop, or grievous bodily harm. In Miami, poison control center calls have reflected problems associated with increased GHB use, including loss of consciousness. In New York City, there have been reports of GHB use among those in the fashion industry. In Atlanta, it is commonly used as a synthetic steroid at fitness centers and gyms.


Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and, when combined with methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and difficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. Because of concern about Rohypnol, GHB, and other similarly abused sedative-hypnotics, Congress passed the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996 in October 1996. This legislation increased Federal penalties for use of any controlled substance to aid in sexual assault.


<h+1>What are the effects?

GHB side effects are usually felt within 5 to 20 minutes after ingestion and they usually last no more than two to three hours. The effects of GHB are unpredictable and very dose-dependent.

Sleep paralysis, agitation, delusions and hallucination have all been reported. Other effects include excessive salivation, decreased gag reflex and vomiting in 30 to 50 percent of users. Dizziness may occur for up to two weeks post ingestion. GHB can cause severe reactions when combined with alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, anticonvulsant and allergy remedies.

In November 1990, the Food and Drug Administration issues a warning that GHB can cause seizures, coma, respiratory arrest and death, especially when mixed with alcoholic beverages.

 

* Abrupt, intense drowsiness

 

* Vomiting

 

* Giddiness, silliness and dizziness

 

* Interference with mobility and          verbal coherence

 

* Semi-consciousness

 

* Decreased heart rate

 

* Sleep-walking

 

A.K.A Date Rape Drug

One of the most common abuse patterns of GHB is by rapists slipping the drug into a victim’s drink (usually alcohol). Within a few moments, the victim will appear drunk and helpless. Often the perpetrator will become a good Samaritan and offer to escort the victim home. When the victim regains consciousness, he or she has no memory of the events.

<h+1>Sex Drugs
<h+1>Alcohol andRape

Sexual Assault combined with Drugs and Alcohol. The dangers and realities of sexual assault are exacerbated when drugs and alcohol become involved. Alcohol and drugs can inhibit resistance, increase aggression and impair decision-making skills. Sexual assault and acquaintance rape are types of violence that are most likely to occur in social settings that foster rape-supportive attitudes and norms. A study published in the Journal of Sex Education and Therapy reported that of those students who had been victims of some type of sexual aggression while in college–from rape to intimidation to illegal restraint–68 percent of their male assailants had been drinking at the time of the attack. Alcohol and drug use exaggerates problems with misinterpretation of sexual intent and can be used to justify assault. Studies show that many college men believe that alcohol increases arousal and legitimates non-consensual aggression. They also report that many college men believe that women who had two or more drinks are more interested than other women in having sex.

44 8
stories personal success stories from graduates of the Narconon® programby cocaine addiction .com Narconon, cocaine addiction, drug rehab, drug rehabilitation, cocaine rehabilitation, rehab, drug, A Narconon information about cocaine addiction, treatment and the Narconon Rehabilitation Program.

Narconon Arrowhead success stories

 

drug addiction stops every day at our center
beloware testimonials from our students

& their

studentstories:

 

 


I came to Narconon Arrowhead a broken mess of a human being. I hadlied to myself for so long that I started to believe there really was no hopefor me, or a way out of the trap. I told myself that I was a drug addict andthat somehow explained and justified my impeccably wasted life. I was more deadthan alive and numb.



®

program hastaught me how to live again. Narconon Arrowhead has restored my faith in myselfand given me a peace and stability that can only be dreamt of. No longer do thechemicals of evil men call my name or haunt my dreams. No longer do I fear orhate or have to hide. I am successful and happy and I have a future. I can seeagain and have restored faith in myself. I can look people in the eye and beproud. I can smile and enjoy even the smallest of simple pleasures.


Narconon Arrowhead made me whole again. How do you thanksomeone for saving your life?


 


This is a program that truly showed me that I am powerful, that I canrepair the past and that all the happiness I ever hope to find is withinmyself. This program not only showed me how to stay off of drugs, it did justwhat it promised, it gave me a new life. If you’re at the end of your rope andyou’re ready to put in some good, honest hard work to make a change for thebetter, without drugs, the Narconon®

program is hands down the best drugrehabilitation drug program on the planet, period. I’ve been clean for 3 yearsnow and I owe it all to my grandmother for getting me to Narconon Arrowhead andto Mr. Benitez and Mr. Hubbard. Thank you very, very much.

 


I first gotclean in 1988 and in my first treatment center I was told that one in tenaddicts who make it to treatment live. I vowed then to be that one and for thelast eleven years I fought a losing battle. It is a miracle that I stand beforeyou today. For those of you who don’t know, and are using, let me tell youit is a life and death struggle that you are in. For those of you who have hadenough pain, I suggest that you grab hold of this program with both hands anddon’t let go until you wring every bit of knowledge and information out ofit that you can. It’s been said that nothing worthwhile is easy. I havedone the hard part already. I have gained certainty that I was going to die orspend my life in prison by trying to “use successfully”.



I want to talkabout the staff. It is hard for me to put into words my gratitude to the staff- how do you thank someone who has saved your life? And not just mine, but whohave dedicated their own lives to helping others to live happy, productivelives. Words are not enough. I will forever spread the word about NarcononArrowhead and the people who absolutely perform miracles every day.



Thankyou Narconon Arrowhead!!!


 


I realize that the world will work with me if I work with it. And Ifound the real me, the person I always wanted to be.


 


®

drugrehabilitation program has saved my life. I cannot begin to explain the senseof happiness that has been restored to my life. I once pictured myself as adrug addict that was beyond help, but today that picture has changed to one Iam proud to face in the mirror every day.


®

program. I didn’tknow if it would work but I knew that if I didn’t do something soon I was goingto die.


®

program and staff.

 


®

program I have enjoyed health andcontrol over my life in a way that I have never before experienced. My pastlife was ruled by drugs, the getting of them and the using of them, for over 25years. I was cynical, depressed, angry and tired. This program allowed me toconfront myself and my environment. It provided me the opportunity tophysically heal and to mentally expand. I, in effect, have discovered myspirit, in a new and ready condition. I have captured the confidence and wonderof my youth. By successfully completing this program I am, for the first timein many, many years, living freely and with purpose. I have awakened to mypotential. I accept the challenge.


Thank you Narconon Arrowhead Staff!


 


®

program gaveme back my life. Doing this program, I have learned that I am a good person andthere is more to being drug-free than just being off drugs; it’s knowingyourself and who you are. It’s about honesty, integrity and values thatmake a person happy. Narconon Arrowhead gave me all these things and more.It’s hard to explain with words. I thank all those who made it possiblefor me to experience this wonderful life I now have.

 


 

»

Five weeks fromtoday I’ll be thirty-eight years old, with a future as a happy, drug-freemember of society to look forward to. What appeared impossible became areality. My purpose as a person has been revealed. Today, I can acceptresponsibility for my past, I am no longer afraid of my future, and I amwanting and willing to help my fellow man.



®

program and the people whodelivered it; words like amazing, unbelievable and spectacular can’t begin todo them justice.


®

programworks and anyone that recognizes the threat drugs pose to our society andplanet must support the efforts of Narconon Arrowhead and its staff – theydeliver.

 


 

»

‘It ‘s OK, you ‘re not ready to quit yet,SO if you have to drink, then drink, and when you are ready to quit you willknow it. You may just have to go down further before you make the decision tostop.’ I thought it was a bunch of garbage because every day I did want toquit but I couldn’t.



®

program. I took a pamphlet withKirstie Alley’s picture on it and called. I asked for information and then Ididn’t think about it, until that July 4th weekend. I went on a binge from July2 to the early hours of July 5th and I realized that I did have a majorproblem. I called Arrowhead and was there 72 hours later.


Thanksfor the life, Narconon Arrowhead


 


If you orsomeone you love has a problem with drugs or alcohol, please call. NarcononArrowhead can save that life and give that person a new awareness ofthemselves.


 


Thanks,Narconon Arrowhead Staff


 


®

program and all it stands for, I owe my life. When I got here, my life was in adownward spiral, and it had been for the past 18 years. I didn’t know how tolive. I didn’t know how to be happy. I only knew I wanted to.



The Ups andDowns Course taught me why I had mood swings and how to prevent them.




The ChangingConditions in Life Course taught me how to handle any situation I have or willhave in my life.



The Way toHappiness®

Courseis just what it says, and if you apply these values to your life, you willflourish and prosper and so will those around you.


®

program istruly a miracle, but this miracle can be explained. I plan on explaining it tomany others to come. Through Narconon Arrowhead, I have courage, strength, andhappiness.



ThanksNarconon Arrowhead!


 

read what parents of Narconon Arrowhead graduates have tosay:

 

 

We will never forget your faces or the wonderful things you are doing. Thank you from the bottom of our hearts.

 

®

program means to my family.

®

program). Thanks to you he celebrated his 9th month of sobriety on April 25th, for which we are all grateful.

®

. We cover these same areas, but not with the excellent books you have.

During my four days I added to my professional competence as an addictions outpatient counselor by talking with students and staff. I was able to see what a focused, intensive program such as yours at Narconon Arrowhead can accomplish in helping people turn around. I was impressed with the level of motivation in the students, and I like the use of the term student because it points out the reason why they are there – namely, to learn a new way to live.

H.J.

 

and grateful parent

 

44 8
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for submitting your information to cocaineaddiction.com
 
<h+1>
 
You may also call 1-800-468-6933 from 8am to 11pm 7days a week to speak with an admissionscounselor.
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<h+2>
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<h+1>

 

 

You may also call 1-800-468-6933 from 8am to 11pm 7days a week to speak with an admissionscounselor.
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treatment_admissions causes, cycle, & biochemical aspects of cocaine & crackaddiction by Narconon Arrowhead & cocaine addiction .com

<h+1>Cocaine Treatment Admissions Decrease: 1993-1999

<h+1>

  • <h+1>

<h+1>

  • Trends indicated stable or declining treatment admission rates for primary cocaine abuse in most States

 

<h+1>Admissions to publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities for cocaine abuse declined by 23 percent between 1993 and 1999, from 136 to 104 per 100,000 persons aged 12 or older. Cocaine was responsible for 14 percent of the 1.6 million admissions in 1999 to these facilities. Cocaine and opiates (at 15 percent) were the leading illicit drugs responsible for treatment admissions.

<h+1>

<h+1>

<h+1>Figure 1.

Cocaine TreatmentAdmission Rates per 100,000 Persons Aged 12 or Older:

1999

Cocaine Treatment Admission Rates:1999

 

Admissions per100,000 Aged 12 or Older

 

<h+1>Figure 2.

Changes in CocaineTreatment Admission Rates: 1993-1999

 

Percent Change

 

Changes in Cocaine Treatment Admission Rates: 1993-1999

 

<h+1>States with High Cocaine Admission Rates

States with HighCocaine Treatment Admission Rates and Large Percentage Changes in Rates:1993-1999

 

Cocaine Admissions per100,00 Aged 12 or Older

Percent Change

1993

1996

1999

1993-1999

United States

136.0

121.6

104.2

-23

176.7

69.0

Massachusetts

203.5

-49

240.9

133.6

NewJersey

140.3

-43

188.6

110.1

Alaska

163.5

-36

273.2

176.3

Michigan

207.3

-32

151.9

120.9

Florida

142.0

-18

265.1

222.6

Delaware

161.3

+28

126.6

163.6

Missouri

135.2

+34

44 8